American History Study Guide 1 - ID TERMS Brown v. Board of...

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ID TERMS Brown v. Board of Education When: 1954 Where: Topeka, Kansas Who: lead lawyer for the NAACP – Thurgood Marshall What: Marshall argued for segregated schools as unconstitutional because they denied black children equal protection of the law guaranteed by the 14 th Amendment. He urged the Supreme Court to overturn the “separate but equal” precedent established in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. The court unanimously agreed with Marshall. Why: first significant victory of the Civil Rights Movement. In 1955, called for schools to begin integration, but President Eisenhower refused to enforce the decision. Little Rock, Arkansas 1957 – Central High School was ready to integrate, but governor Orval Faubus sent National Guard to block nine black students from enrolling, later allowed, but then white mobs and TV broadcast. Eisenhower sent in army to protect – first President since Reconstruction to use federal troops to enforce black rights. Operation Rolling Thunder When: began in March 1965 Where: special target Ho Chi Minh Trail
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Who: Lyndon B. Johnson Where: strategy of gradually intensified bombing of North Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh Trail was targeted because North Vietnamese soldiers were using this route to get troops and supplies into South Vietnam. Between 1965 and 1968, dropped one million tons of bombs on North Vietnam Why: bombing had little effect on the ability of the North to wage war – flow of troops and supplies continued, intensified their will to fight. Feminine Mystique When: 1963 Where: United States Who: writer and feminist Betty Friedan What: psychologists had pronounced motherhood as the only normal thing for women to do, and if they were outside the home, they were damaging the children’s emotional development. In response, Betty Friedan wrote Feminine Mystique which expressed that not all women wanted to stay home and be moms, women wanted to use their abilities to have jobs and careers, and societal expectation was causing women to be unsatisfied Why: in the height of the post-war period, more than 1/3 women held jobs outside of the home – justified as an extension of family responsibility, gave them the opportunity to provide more for their families
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Domino Theory When: 1945, 1954 Where: Southeast Asia, France, Japan, Taiwan, and Philippines Who: Ho Chi Minh, Truman administration, Eisenhower Where: in 1945 the Vietminh, led by Ho Chi Minh, had proclaimed independence of Vietnam from France. France tried to maintain the colony, but Ho fought back. Because Ho said he was a communist, the Truman admin began secretly providing aid to the French. Eisenhower said aid was essential to keep Communism from taking hold in Southeast Asia because their fall to Communism would trigger the fall of Japan, Taiwan, and the Philippines Why: by 1954, the U.S. was contributing 75% of the cost of France’s war Eugene “Bull” Connnor When: April 1963 Where: Birmingham, AL Who: city’s police chief What: MLK Jr. and the SCLC marched to picket downtown department stores.
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American History Study Guide 1 - ID TERMS Brown v. Board of...

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