Chem. Chapter 3 & 4 Outline - Chapter 3.1 Outline...

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Chapter 3.1 Outline I. Chemical Equations A. Chemical reactions are represented in a concise way by chemical equations B. Because atoms are neither created nor destroyed in any reaction, a chemical equation must have an equal number of atoms of each element on each side of the arrow II. Balancing Equations A. Once we know the formulas of the reactants and products in a reaction, we can write the unbalanced equation. B. In balancing equations, it is important to understand the differences between a coefficient in front of a formula and a subscript in a formula C. It is usually best to balance first those elements that occur in the fewest chemical formulas on each side of the equation III. Indicating the States of Reactants and Products A. Additional information is often added to the formulas in balanced equations to indicate the physical state of each reactant and product B. Sometimes the conditions (such as temperature or pressure) under which the reaction proceeds appear above or below the reaction arrow
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Chapter 3.2 Outline I. Some Simple Patterns of Chemical Reactivity A. The key to predicting the products formed by a given combination of reactants is recognized II. Combination and Decomposition of Reactions A. In combination reactions two or more substances react to form one product B. When the combination reaction occurs between a metal and a nonmetal, the product is an ionic solid C. In a decomposition reaction one substance undergoes a reaction to produce two or more other substances III. Combustion in Air A. Combustion reacts are rapid reactions that produce a flame B. Combustion of oxygen-containing derivatives of hydrocarbons, such as CH 3 OH, also produces CO 2 and H 2 O C. In our bodies, however, the reactions take place in a series of steps that occurs in body temperature
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Chapter 3.3 Outline I. Formula Weights A. Chemical formulas and chemical equations both have a quantitative significance; the subscripts in formulas and the coefficients in equations represent precise quantities II. Formula and Molecular Weights A. The formula weight of a substance is the sum of the atomic weights of each atom in its chemical formula B. If the chemical formula is that of a molecule, and then the formula weight is also called the molecular weight III. Percentage Composition from formulas A. Occasionally we must calculate the percentage composition of a compound (that is, that percentage by mass contributed by each element in the substance)
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Chapter 3.4 Outline I. Avogadro’s Number and the Mole A. Even the smallest samples that we deal with in the laboratory contain enormous numbers of atoms, ions, or molecules B. In everyday life we use counting units like dozen and gross to deal with modestly large quantities C. Avogadro’s number is so large that it is difficult to imagine II. Molar Mass A. A dozen is the same number whether we have a dozen eggs or a dozen elephants B. For other kinds of substances, the same numerical relationship exists between the formula weight (in amu) and the mass (in grams) of one
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course CHEM 1001 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Chem. Chapter 3 & 4 Outline - Chapter 3.1 Outline...

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