Micrbiology Exam 1 Notes

Micrbiology Exam 1 Notes - What is microbiology: the study...

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What is microbiology: the study of small life or microbes o Includes: viruses (virology), bacteria (bacteriology), fungi (mycology), and protists Why study microbes? o Medicine, food preparation and preservation, ecology, waste disposal, basic science (research for knowing how/why), and biotechnology History of Microbiology o 1796: Edward Jenner, England Took cowpox and gave it to a boy as an experiment Then exposed him to smallpox; he didn’t get it Basis for early vaccines o 1600s: Leeuwenhoek Dutch Merchant who was examining cloth quality Lead him to invent the first microscopes Made drawings of microbes First to see sperm cells Called them “animalcules” o 1800s: Schwann and Schleiden Developed cell theory Cells come from other cells Cells are the smallest form of life o Louis Pasteur (France) Invented Pasteurization Germ theory w/ Koch Diseases are caused by some germ/agent Vaccination Developed vaccination for rabies (1 st one) o Robert Koch (Germany) Series of proofs to determine if a microbe causes a disease Germ theory w/ Pasteur o 1800s: Joseph Lister Doctor who was horrified by un-cleanliness of the medical industry Developed the first aseptic techniques Designed to reduce infection Started w/ washing hands Pouring acid down arms o Greatly reduced infection rates after surgery Viruses weren’t visible w/ 1800s microscopes
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o Late 1800s: Ivanoski 1 st to isolate a virus o Antibodies o 1920: Sir Isaac Flemming Developed penicillin: the 1 st antibiotic Production boomed in WWII Macromolecules o Large molecules that compose structures of the cell o Organic molecules made/contain carbon Synthesized by living organisms o Definition: large molecules composed of smaller sub units o 4 main classes: carbohydrates (sugars), lipids (fats/oils), protein (contain nitrogen), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) Carbohydrates o Simple sugars and their polymers o 6 C Sugar: C6H12O6 o 12 C sugar: C12H22O11 o Monomer: monosaccharide = simple sugar 5C = pentose, ribose 6C = hexoses, glucose, fructose, galactose o Function: to provide immediate energy and serve as building blocks for larger molecules o Disaccharide = covalent linkage b/t 2 monosaccharide’s Condensation (dehydration) reaction Subunit 1 + subunit 2 subunit 1 – subunit 2 + water o Maltose + water  glucose + glucose o Maltose, sucrose = glucose + fructose o Lactose = glucose + galactose o Function of disaccharides: energy source o Polysaccharides = many sugars covalently linked Function: long term energy storage Starch and Glycogen Starch-glucose polymer is made by plants Glycogen-glucose polymer made by animals Made in the liver Function: structural support
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o Cellulose: glucose polymer, linked together differently to make a rigid molecule No animal can digest Digested by fungus, protists, and some bacteria
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course BIO 2001 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Cornell.

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Micrbiology Exam 1 Notes - What is microbiology: the study...

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