Chapter 10 - Medical Terminology Chapter 10 Nervous System...

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Medical Terminology Chapter 10 Nervous System
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Nerves
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Neuron
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Neuron A nerve cell; carries impulses throughout the body. There about 10 billion neurons.
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Nerves Carry electrical messages all over the body
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Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
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Dendrite Microscopic branching of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse
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Cell body Part of the nerve cell that contains the nucleus
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Myelin Sheath Fatty tissue that surrounds, protects and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
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Central Nervous System
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Peripheral Nervous System 12 pairs of cranial nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves
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Acetylcholine, Synapse
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Receptor Specialized tissue that receives impulses Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptor organs.
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Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic--rest and restoration Sympathetic—flight or fight
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Sympathetic Nervous System Increase heart rate and force of contraction Dilates bronchioles Increase blood pressure Releases epinephrine from adrenals Slows digestion Dilates the pupil
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Parasympathetic Nervous System Slows heart rate Constricts the pupil Lowers blood pressure Stimulates GI motility Increases GI secretions
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Plexus
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Plexus A large network of nerves in the peripheral nervous system
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Ganglia Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the brain and spinal cord
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Neurilemma Membranous sheath outside the myelin sheath on the nerve cells of peripheral nerves
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