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Chapter 18 - Medical Terminology Chapter 18 The Endocrine...

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Medical Terminology Chapter 18 The Endocrine System
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Endocrine System Hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream from ductless glands Produce effects by binding to receptors on target organs
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Pineal Gland Secretes melatonin Involved in sleep and wakefulness May be implicated in SAD Increases with deprivation of light and is inhibited by sunlight
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Thymus Gland Produces Thymosin Important in immune response Is often removed in patients with Myasthenia Gravis
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Kidney Secretes erythropoietin to stimulate rbc production Secretes renin Secretes 1,25 Vitamin D
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Thyroid Gland Located in the neck anterior to the trachea Produces T4, thyroxine and T3, triiodothyronine Made from tyrosine Incorporates iodine T4 is converted into T3 in the tissues, T3 is the active form of the hormone
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Thyroid hormones Regulate metabolic rate Facilitate protein synthesis Regulate cholesterol
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Regulation T4 and T3 are produced and released in response to the pituitary hormone Thyroid Stimulating Hormone or TSH Feedback loop Thyroid hormone goes down, TSH goes up TSH is elevated in hypothyroidism, suppressed in hyperthyroidism
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Calcitonin Produced by thyroid C cells Decreases bone resorption Lowers serum calcium Elevated in medullary thyroid cancer Medullary thyroid cancer can be part of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
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Parathyroid Glands Located on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland Secretes PTH or parathyroid hormone PTH mobilizes calcium from the bones Goes up with hypocalcemia Suppressed with hypocalcemia
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PTH Can be overproduced by an adenoma, causing hypercalcemia Treatment is surgical removal of the adenoma
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Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex Secretes corticosteroids (derived from cholesterol) Glucocorticoids Mineralocorticoids Gonadocorticoids Adrenal medulla Secretes catecholamines Epinephrine Norepinephrine
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