Basics of what is and isn’t considered “original research” regarding this course:
RESEARCH IS: answering
clearly defined questions
, by collecting and interpreting
systematic and replicable
manner, to make conclusions that
build on existing knowledge
can continue to advance
RESEARCH IS NOT: gathering information (eg- reading in the library); rearranging
existing facts (eg – writing a report from books); making an argument or piling up
support for a cause, claim, or persuasive goal.
Basic steps of the research process:
What is Research?
An attempt to discover something
Daily routine (informal/formal)
Analyze, test, and evaluate
A process employed to answer questions
Research, whether formal or informal, always starts with a question
Science and Research
: The medium itself; What is it like? What does it do? (Internet, TV,
: Uses and Users of the medium; entertainment? Do adults use it? Do children
use it? (Who? Why?)
: Effects of the medium; What are the effects of violent video games on
viewers? (Social, Psychological, Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral)
How the medium can be improved (Pro-social, informative, entertaining,
how are they related to one another?
In reality, the phases are not linear: once a medium is developed and
established, research may be conducted simultaneously in all four phases.
Ex) although television has been around for decades, researchers still
continue to investigate the medium itself, the uses of TV, effects, and
Fifth “related” phase
[In private research]: How can the medium make money?
Basic understanding of the history of mass communication research and key figures:
Growth of Mass Media Research
How can the media be used to influence people?
Doesn’t take into consideration independent variables; people respond to
things all the same way
-- Post-World War I: Newspaper, print, film propaganda Hypodermic Needle/Stimulus-
Response – Direct effects:
(psychology): Nazi Propaganda
(sociology): Audiences, industry
(physics/social psych): Interpersonal
(social psych): WWII PR, message campaigns