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Unformatted text preview: EXAM 3: Chapter 6 : • Understand the general goals, principles, and uses of content analysis. o Popular with mass media researchers because it investigates the content of the media, such as the number or types of advertisements or commercials in broadcasting or print media. **Looks at the content of a message by looking at it systematically • Analyzes existing messages in a systematic, objective quantitative method to describe or explain communication. o Describe: How common is smoking in films? o Explain: How do portrayals of terrorism in media differ before and after 11 September, 2001? What message characteristics have successful Presidential candidates used in ads? Questions about WHAT, not questions of effects Three characteristics of content analysis: Systematic : Analysis occurs according to explicit and consistently applied rules. All content must be treated exactly the same way. Objective : Researcher’s personal biases should not enter the findings. If replicated by another researcher, findings should be the same. [not subjective] Quantitative : Results are presented in percentages. However, frequency of occurrence does not mean the most important. Sometimes things that show up less are more powerful than things that show up more, making them more important. • Typically measures manifest content, but may also explore latent content. o Manifest : Precise words, image sizes. o Latent : Connotations, themes. (more subjective, more difficult to measure using content analysis). • Understand the steps involved in conducting a content analysis. Content Analysis Design: 1. Review relevant literature. 2. Formulate hypotheses/research questions. 3. Define population/universe of messages for study. • To specify the boundaries of the body of content to be considered, which requires an appropriate operational definition of the relevant population. o Ex: If researchers are interested in analyzing the content of popular songs, they must define what is mean by “popular songs” 4. Select sample (unless census is available). • Multistage sampling • Larger, random samples. • Census : an analysis in which the sample comprises every element of the population. 5. Define unit of analysis (word, theme, character, time/space, item). • The smallest element of a content analysis ^ 6. Establish quantification system (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio categories (reflect purpose, exhaustive, mutually exclusive). • To be serviceable, all category systems should be mutually exclusive, exhaustive, and reliable. o Mutually exclusive : if a unit of analysis can be placed in one and only one category. Ex) what type of programming does CSI: Miami go into? – falls into too many categories, needs to be redefined....
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2011 for the course COMM 2124 taught by Professor Ivory during the Spring '11 term at Virginia Tech.
- Spring '11
- Mass Media