Chap 4 – Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Objectives 1. Explain the ability of carbon to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules. 2. Describe how carbon skeletons may vary. 3.Describe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon and explain why these molecules are hydrophobic. 4.Distinguish among the three types of isomers: structural, geometric, and enantiomer. 5.Name the major functional groups found in organic molecules. KEY TERMS aldehyde amino group carbonyl group carboxyl group enantiomer functional group geometric isomer hydrocarbon hydroxyl group Isomer ketone methyl group organic chemistry phosphate group sulfhydryl group Outline A. The Importance of Carbon 1. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds a. All organic compounds contain C except carbon dioxide 2. Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of molecules a. C has 4 valence electrons. (Tetravalent) b. C form covalent bonds with various elements, (H, O, N) 3. Variation in carbon skeletons contributes to the diversity of organic molecules
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