Chap 5 PPT - CHAPTER FIVE The Structure and Function of...

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CHAPTER FIVE The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules
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Overview: The Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Within cells, small organic molecules are joined together to form larger molecules Macromolecules are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms Molecular structure and function are inseparable
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Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks These small building-block molecules are called monomers Three of the four classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids
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A condensation reaction or more specifically a dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule Enzymes are macromolecules that speed up the dehydration process Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis , a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers Animation: Polymers Animation: Polymers
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Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 (a)
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Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Hydrolysis of a polymer HO HO HO H 2 O H H H 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 (b)
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The Diversity of Polymers Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules Macromolecules vary among cells of an organism, vary more within a species, and vary even more between species An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers 2 3 HO H
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Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Carbohydrates include sugars and the polymers of sugars The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or single sugars, they serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks.
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Sugars Monosaccharides Are the simplest sugars Contain C, H & O in a ratio of 1:2:1. Can be used for fuel especially glucose, which is a major fuel for cell respiration Can be converted into other organic molecules Can be combined into polymers
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Sugars Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH 2 O Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) is the most common monosaccharide Monosaccharides are classified by The location of the carbonyl group (as aldose or ketose) The number of carbons in the carbon skeleton
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Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Ketoses Aldoses Fructose Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Pentoses (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Trioses (C 3 H 6 O 3 )
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Linear and ring forms
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A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage/bond Animation: Disaccharides Animation: Disaccharides
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