Chap 6 PPT - CHAPTER SIX A Tour of the CELL Overview: The...

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CHAPTER SIX A Tour of the CELL
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Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live Cell structure is correlated to cellular function All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells
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To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry Though usually too small to be seen by the unaided eye, cells can be complex Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye In a light microscope (LM) , visible light passes through a specimen and then through glass lenses, which magnify the image
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10 m 1 m 0.1 m 1 cm 1 mm 100 µm 10 µm 1 µm 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm 0.1 nm Atoms Small molecules Lipids Proteins Ribosomes Viruses Smallest bacteria Mitochondrion Nucleus Most bacteria Most plant and animal cells Frog egg Chicken egg Length of some nerve and muscle cells Human height Unaided eye Light microscope Electron microscope
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Two basic types of electron microscopes (EMs) are used to study subcellular structures Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D Transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) focus a beam of electrons through a specimen TEMs are used mainly to study the internal structure of cells
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(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) TECHNIQUE RESULTS (b) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Cilia Longitudinal section of cilium Cross section of cilium 1 µm 1 µm
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Cell Types Organisms have one of two types of cells: prokaryotic eukaryotic Only organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells Protists, fungi, animals, and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells
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Comparing Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Basic features of all cells: Plasma membrane Semifluid substance called cytosol Chromosomes (carry genes) Ribosomes (make proteins)
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Prokaryotic cells are characterized by having No nucleus DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid No membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane
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Fimbriae Nucleoid Ribosomes Plasma membrane Cell wall Capsule Flagella Bacterial chromosome (a) A typical rod-shaped bacterium (b) A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans (TEM) 0.5 µm
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Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells
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The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell The general structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of phospholipids with proteins embedded in it.
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membrane (a) (b) Structure of the plasma membrane Outside of cell Inside of
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course BIOL 2301 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Lone Star College System.

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Chap 6 PPT - CHAPTER SIX A Tour of the CELL Overview: The...

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