Chap 9 PPT - CHAPTER NINE Cellular Respiration Harvesting...

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CHAPTER NINE Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
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How do the leaves power the work of life for the giant panda?
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Living cells require energy from outside sources Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respiration Cells use chemical energy stored in organic molecules to regenerate ATP, which powers work
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Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO 2 + H 2 O Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cellular work Heat energy ATP
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Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic Fermentation is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without O 2 Aerobic respiration consumes organic molecules and O 2 and yields ATP Anaerobic respiration is similar to aerobic respiration but consumes compounds other than O 2
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Cellular respiration includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration but is often used to refer to aerobic respiration Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are all consumed as fuel, it is helpful to trace cellular respiration with the sugar glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat) Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP
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Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction A redox reaction is the transfer of electrons during chemical reactions Energy that is stored in organic molecules is released This released energy is ultimately used to synthesize (make) ATP
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The Principle of Redox Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions In oxidation , a substance loses electrons, or is oxidized In reduction , a substance gains electrons, or is reduced (the amount of positive charge is reduced)
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becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron)
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becomes oxidized becomes reduced
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Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration, the fuel (such as glucose) is oxidized, and O 2 is reduced: becomes oxidized becomes reduced
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Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD + and the Electron Transport Chain Cellular respiration oxidizes glucose in a series of steps Electron /Hydrogen/Energy Carriers Electrons from organic compounds are usually first transferred to NAD + or FAD, coenzymes NADH (the reduced form of NAD + ) and FADH 2 (the reduced form of FAD) passes the electrons to the electron transport chain
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Dehydrogenase Reduction of NAD + Oxidation of NADH 2 e + 2 H + 2 e + H + NAD + + 2[ H ] NADH + H + H + Nicotinamide (oxidized form) Nicotinamide (reduced form)
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Free energy, G (a) Uncontrolled reaction H 2 O H 2 + 1 / 2 O 2 Explosive release of heat and light energy (b) Cellular respiration Controlled release of energy for synthesis of ATP 2 H + + 2 e 2 H + 1 / 2 O 2 (from food via NADH) ATP 1 / 2 O 2 2 H 2 e Electron transport chain
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course BIOL 2301 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Lone Star College System.

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Chap 9 PPT - CHAPTER NINE Cellular Respiration Harvesting...

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