Chapter 11 – Cell Communication Objectives 1. Describe the basic signal-transduction pathway. 2. Define local regulation and explain why hormones are not local regulators. 3. Explain how plant and animal hormones travel to target cells. 4. List and briefly define the three stages of cell signaling. 5. Define the term ‘second messenger’. Key Words Apoptosis cyclic AMP (cAMP) cytoplasm gap junction glycogen reception second messenger signal transduction signal transduction pathway transduction Outline A. An Overview of Cell Signaling 1. Cell signaling evolved early in the history of life. 2. Communicating cells may be close together or far apart 3. Cell can respond to physical signals (e.g. touch), electromagnetic signals (e.g. light). 4. Most cells communicate using chemical signals (e.g. hormones, neurotransmitters). 5. Cells can also communicate by direct contact (ex. plasmodesmata and gap junctions) 6. The three stages of cell signaling are reception, transduction, and response
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