Chap 13 Outline - CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES...

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CHAPTER 13 - MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES Objectives 1. Explain why organisms only reproduce their own kind, and why offspring more closely resemble their parents than unrelated individuals of the same species. 2. Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. 3. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms: 4. somatic cell and gamete 5. autosome and sex chromosome 6. Explain how haploid and diploid cells differ from each other. State which cells in the human body are diploid and which are haploid. 7. Diagram the human life cycle and indicate where in the human body that mitosis and meiosis occur; which cells are the result of meiosis and mitosis; and which cells are haploid. 8. Distinguish between the phases of meiosis I and II and describe the events characteristic of each phase. 9. Recognize the phases of meiosis from diagrams or micrographs. 10. Describe synapsis/crossing over during prophase I, and explain how genetic recombination occurs. 11. Describe key differences between mitosis and meiosis. 12. Explain how independent assortment, crossing over, and random fertilization contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms. 13. Explain why inheritable variation was crucial to Darwin’s theory of evolution. Keywords allele asexual reproduction autosome chiasma clone crossing over diploid cell gene genetics haploid cell heredity homologous chromosomes karyotype locus meiosis meiosis I meiosis II recombinant chromosome sex chromosome sexual reproduction somatic cell synapsis variation zygote Outline A. An Introduction to Heredity 1. Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes a. Heredity - Continuity of biological traits from one generation to the next. b. Variation – Inherited differences amongst individuals of the same species c. Genetics – The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. DNA – Type of nucleic acid. Genes – Units of hereditary information are made of DNA, located on chromosomes. Chromosomes - Consist of a single long DNA molecule, contain genetic information arranged in a linear sequence Locus – Specific location on a chromosome that contains a gene. 2. Comparison of asexual versus sexual reproduction - Reproduction must occur for a species to survive. Asexual Reproduction
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Chap 13 Outline - CHAPTER 13 MEIOSIS AND SEXUAL LIFE CYCLES...

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