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CHAPTER 15 - THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Objectives 1. Describe why Dr osophila melanogaster is a good experimental organism. 2. Define linkage and explain why linkage interferes with independent assortment. 3. Explain how crossing over can unlink genes. 4. Describe sex determination in humans. 5. Describe the inheritance of a sex-linked gene such as color-blindness. 6. Explain why a recessive sex-linked gene is always expressed in human males. 7. Explain how an organism compensates for the fact that some individuals have a double dosage of sex-linked genes while others have only one. 8. Distinguish among nondisjunction, aneuploidy, and polyploidy; explain how these major chromosomal changes occur and describe the consequences. 9. Distinguish between trisomy and triploidy. 10. Distinguish among deletions, duplications, translocations, and inversions. 11. Describe alterations in chromosome structure, also how effects alters the phenotype. 12. Describe the type of chromosomal alterations implicated in the following human disorders: Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, extra Y, triple-X syndrome, Turner syndrome, 13. Define genomic imprinting and provide evidence to support this model. 14. Explain how the complex expression of a human genetic disorder, such as fragile-X syndrome, can be influenced by triplet repeats and genomic imprinting. 15. Give some exceptions to the chromosome theory of inheritance, and explain why cytoplasmic genes are not inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Keywords Aneuploidy Barr body crossing over Down syndrome Duchenne muscular dystrophy duplication genetic map genomic imprinting hemophilia inversion linkage map linked genes monosomic nondisjunction parental type polyploidy sex-linked gene translocation trisomic wild type Outline A. Relating Mendelism to Chromosomes 1. Mendelian inheritance has its basis in the behavior of chromosomes during sexual life cycles 2. T.H. Morgan (1900) traced a specific gene to a specific chromosome. a.
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course BIOL 2301 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Lone Star College System.

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