Chap 23 Outline - Chapter 23 - The Evolution of Populations...

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Chapter 23 - The Evolution of Populations Objectives 1. Explain the statement “It is the population, not the individual that evolves.” 2. Explain how Mendel’s hypothesis of inheritance provided much-needed support for Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. 3. Explain what is meant by the “modern synthesis”. 4. Define the terms population, species, and gene pool. 5. Explain how microevolutionary change can affect a gene pool. 6. In your own words, state the Hardy-Weinberg theorem. 7. Write the general Hardy-Weinberg equation and use it to calculate allele and genotype frequencies. 8. Describe the usefulness of the Hardy-Weinberg model to population geneticists. 9. List the conditions a population must meet in order to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 10. Explain why mutation has little quantitative effect on allele frequencies in a large population. 11. Explain the role of population size in genetic drift. 12. Explain how genetic drift, gene flow, mutation, nonrandom mating and natural selection can cause microevolution. 13. Explain the role of population size in genetic drift. 14. Distinguish between the bottleneck effect and the founder effect. 15. Define a cline. 16. Describe how inbreeding and assortative mating affect a population’s allele and genotype frequencies. 17. List some factors that can produce geographical variation among closely related populations. 18. Explain why even though mutation can be a source of genetic variability; it contributes a negligible amount to genetic variation in a population (except in unicellular organisms) 19. Explain how diploidy can protect a rare recessive allele from elimination by natural selection. 20. Explain how genetic variation may be preserved in a natural population. 21. Give examples of how an organism’s phenotype may be influenced by the environment. 22. Distinguish among stabilizing selection, directional selection and diversifying (disruptive) selection. 23. Distinguish between intrasexual selection and intersexual selection. 24. Explain how female preferences for showy male traits may benefit the female. 25. Give at least four reasons why natural selection cannot breed perfect organisms. Outline A. Population Genetics 1. The modern evolutionary synthesis integrated Darwinian selection and Mendelian inheritance 2. The genetic structure of a population is defined by its allele and genotype frequencies. 3. A population is a localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring 4. The Hardy-Weinberg theorem describes a nonevolving population 5. Macro and Microevolution Microevolution is the change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation Macroevolution evolution occurs over a long period of time, producing major changes in species and other taxonomic group B. Genetic Variation, the Substrate for Natural Selection 1. Genetic variation occurs within and between populations 2. Mutation and sexual recombination generate
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course BIOL 2301 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Lone Star College System.

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Chap 23 Outline - Chapter 23 - The Evolution of Populations...

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