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ancient%20lecture%208 - Yuan Dynasty Zaju Guan Hanqing,...

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Yuan Dynasty Zaju Guan Hanqing, Snow in Midsummer , or The Injustice Done to Dou E (Dou E Yuan) (ca.1200s AD)
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Map: China
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Yuan Dynasty (1280–1369) Z aju = “N. variety drama” Started in Song (South, 960-1279) & Jin (North, 1115-1234) dynasties Fully developed after Mongol conquest of China (1276) that led to the Yuan Dynasty Mongols massacred and enslaved the Chinese “apart from the artisans and actors, butcher them all” Kublai Khan, Mongolian founder of the Yuan dynasty
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Rewriting Chinese culture Last imperial examination for civil service was held in 1238 (not reinstated until 1314) Mongols also abolished Confucianism Principles of philosopher Confucius (551–479BCE) E.g., Three Duties and Four Virtues p.457 Degradation of scholars = just above beggars Rise of other faiths: Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, and Islam New intellectual freedom despite anti-intellectualism Encouragement of zaju drama as entertainment for Mongol troops
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Theatre as resistance Playwrights used zaju as a “weapon of the conquered” Obliquely mocked Mongol imperialists’ brutality and excesses Adapted old stories, popular legends, narrative poems, and simple plays Reprieve from injustice of Chinese life under
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ancient%20lecture%208 - Yuan Dynasty Zaju Guan Hanqing,...

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