Lecture 04 - Pharmacokinetics

Lecture 04 - Pharmacokinetics - o Only accessible when drug...

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Lecture 04 – Pharmacokinetics Medical Errors - The Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in the study, “To Err Is Human” found that medical errors are the fourth most frequent cause of hospitalization or prolonging hospitalization. - At the top of the list are medication errors. - Medication safety begins with the proper prescribing and delivery of drugs to the site of action. Roles of the Physician & Pharamcist in Comtemporary Health Care - Physicians examine patients, take histories, order lab tests and conduct medical interventions, for which prescribing of drugs is a major component. - Pharmacists play a major role in the therapeutic management of disease, prescribing and dispensing of drugs. o Changing rapidly o Prescribing drugs - Both share the responsibility for therapeutic counsel, optimizing compliance and preventing medical errors. Integrated Science Curriculum Pharmacology: Drug Disposition Principal Learning Objectives - Prescribing and administering a drug to the patient involves more than drug selection; rather a primary consideration should be delivering the drug to the site of action and for a duration that maximizes efficacy and safety and minimizes toxicity. o To do no harm and get maximize efficacy - Involves the interplay of pharmacokinetic and pharmaco- dynamic principles determine therapeutic efficacy - o If you admin the drug IV it is a first order – the slope is changing because it depends on the concentration o Only accessible when drug is the plasma (the only measurement we have to get the [drug]) You need to wait after the injection - Determine: 1. Half life of the drug – duration of action 2. Dosing to achieve a steady state concentration 3. Rate of clearance – prevent saturation (see if it is still first order behavior in higher concentration – if we don’t then we have accumulation) 4. Body compartments in which the drug distributes (extraceullar space or intercellular space) 5. Bioavailability -fraction of drug that becomes systemic. 6. Rate of absorption PK and Drug Disposition - Why are the concepts difficult? 1. Based on kinetic considerations, where not only do concentration and mass change as a function of time, but also the volume in which the drug is distributed changes. o Whatever is happened in the test tube it is in a small test tube, when you give it to man you have other factors – increase in volume and integration for the reduction 2. Based on integral calculus and integrating reductionist and systems science (ISC). 3.
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHARM cs taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 04 - Pharmacokinetics - o Only accessible when drug...

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