Week_1_Cardiology

Week_1_Cardiology - Lecture 1 Introduction to Autonomic...

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Lecture 1 Introduction to Autonomic Pharmacology: Anatomy and Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Autonomic Nervous System basics and importance Also called ANS Controls Visceral (automatic) functions o Heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, glands, sweating, pupils Many drugs affect ANS to treat many diseases o Hypertension, angina, bronchial asthma… Many drugs have side effects that affect ANS o Antihistamines, antidepressants, antihypertensive… Many diseases affect or cause symptoms that attribute to ANS o Diabetes, myocardial infarction, hypertension… General Organization of the nervous system: CNS and PNS CNS (brain, spinal cord) o Brain Cerebral hemispheres Process sensory input Controls skeletal muscles Higher mental abilities Brain stem (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata) Regulates respiration, heart rate, blood pressure Cerebellum Controls balance, posture Coordination of movement o Spinal Cord Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral PNS (cranial nerves and spinal nerves)
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o Cranial nerves Transmit info in/out of brain stem 12 pairs (4 pairs important in ANS) III oculomotor nerve VII Facial nerve IX Glossopharyngeal nerve X vagus nerve o Spinal Nerves Transmit info in an out of spinal chord 30 pairs (1 pair for each vertebrae (1 extra pair for cervical vertebrae) Cranial and spinal nerve 2 types Sensory neurons o Transmit info from periphery to CNS o Also called afferent nerves Motor neurons o Transmit instruction from CNS to periphery o Also called efferent Structure of basic motor neuron Dendrites - receive info Soma - cell body Schwann cells - wrap around axon Nerve terminal - synthesizes neurotransmitters and stores in vesicles Synapse vs neuroeffector junction Synapse - junction between two nerve cells NEJ - junction between nerve and effector cell Structure of sensory neuron More variable structure than motor neurons Dendrites can take the form of sensory receptors that connect directly to axon Soma can be in middle of axon or attached to side of axon
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ANS and SNS features and differences Autonomic nervous system vs Somatic nervous system ANS controls visceral (automatic) functions o SNS controls manual functions o Body wall, skeletal muscle Both contain sensory and motor neurons o Cranial and spinal fibers usually contain nerves from all four groups (called mixed nerve) Motor pathways of ANS and SNS Motor pathway from SNS - just one neuron from CNS to effector cell Motor pathway in ANS 2 neurons - preganglionic neuron and postganglionic neuron o postganglionic neuron not myelinated Adrenal Medulla Innervated by preganglionic neurons from ANS
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Cells are homologous to autonomic postganglionic neurons (without postganglionic fibers) Acts like a specialized peripheral ganglion Releases EPI and NE
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHARM cs taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.

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Week_1_Cardiology - Lecture 1 Introduction to Autonomic...

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