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Unformatted text preview: K id n e y 3 cell types in the juxtaglomerular apparatus: (1) Macula Densa: monitor solute in tubular fluid and signal to granular cells. (2) Extraglomerular mesangial cells: contain receptors for AngII (constricts vessels) and ANF (relaxes vessels) (3) Granular cells: specialized smooth muscle cells within and around the afferent arteriole that secrete renin. 3 layers of the filtration barrier: (1) Capillary endothelium (2) Basement membrane (3) Podocytes (epithelial cells) C o r t e x Renal Corpuscle Renal Tubules Renal Corpuscle Glomerulus Bowmans space Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Proximal convoluted tubule Distal convoluted tubule M e d u l l a Vasa recta Loop of Henle Minor calyx U r e t e r 7 Functions of the Kidney Regulation of water and electrolyte balance Excretion of metabolic wastes (urea, uric acid, creatinine, pigments from heme) Excretion of hormones, drugs, and their metabolites (steroid hormone metabolites, glucuronide conjugates of drugs, unchanged drugs) Regulation of arterial blood pressure Regulation of Vitamin D production (hydroxylates 25-(OH)Vit D to form active 1,25(OH) 2 Vit D) Regulation of RBC production via secretion of erythropoietin Gluconeogenesis (lesser role compared to the liver) Two Classification Systems for Nephrons Glomerular Location Tubule Length Superficial Cortical Short loop Mid-Cortical Long loop Juxtamedullary Renal Artery Segmental Artery Interlobar Artery Arcuate Artery Cortical Radial Artery Cortical Radial Vein Arcuate Vein Interlobar Vein Segmental Vein Renal Vein Renal Papilla Transitional Epithelium Papillary CD Minor calyx Major calyx Renal pelvis Ureter Bladder Internal sphincter External sphincter Excretion Renal Blood Flow rine flow B o d y F lu id C o m p a r 60-40-20 Rule: In a non-obese, young adult male, total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid (ICF), and extracelullar fluid (ECF) represent 60%, 40%, and 20% of body weight, respectively. Within the ECF, water is distributed between plasma and interstitial space in a 1:3 ratio. Compartment Marker Substance (used to measure compartment size) TBW Isotopes of H 2 O (D 2 O, HTO), Antipyrine ECF Isotopes of EC ions (Na + , Cl- ), Mannitol Plasma Labeled albumin The ISF and plasma equilibrate because no energy is spent to establish concentration gradients across the capillary endothelium. The ISF and ICF have very different compositions due to cotrasnporters, channels, and ATPases that establish concentration gradients across cell membranes. Gibbs-Donnan Effect: Although the plasma and ISF are electrically neutral, there tends to be small cations and fewer small anions in the plasma. This is due to the presence of anionic proteins in the plasma which do not diffuse across the capillary endothelium....
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2011 for the course PHARM rs taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UCSD.
- Spring '11