Cases(SB)

Cases(SB) - Microbiology Cases Organism Features Host...

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Microbiology Cases Organism Features Host Response Clinical Presentation Diagnosis Treatment Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumonia) #1 cause community- acquired pneumonia gram +, catalase -, bullet shaped diplococcus capsule = most important virulence factor spread via resp droplets secretory IgA pneumonia (sudden-onset, fever, productive cough, +/- blood in sputum) common cause of sinusitis complications = gram stain culture: small/medium mucoid colonies w/alpha hemoloysis, optochin succeptible, bile succeptible antigen test penicillin if pen-resistant ceftriaxone or clindamycin 7-valent vaccine for children! Neisseria Meningiditis (meningitis) one of the usual suspects for meningitis (S. pneumo, N. meningiditus, H. flu….GBS in neonates) capnophillic, gram – cocci in pairs (coffee- bean shaped) has LOS instead of LPS meningitis belt in sub- Saharan Africa complement and Ig’s meningococcemia can start with flu-like sx, then petichial rash then pustules, bullae… sepsis DIC in a matter of hours +/- meningitis (HA, neck stiff, altered mental state, vomiting) gram stain culture (prefers chocolate agar) penicillin G or ceftriaxone ASAP tetravalent vaccine (polysaccaride capsular protein conjugate) for serotypes: A, C, Y, W135 * no coverage for serotype B
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Salmonella typhi (Typhoid fever) motile gram – rods strictly human dz, spread thru contaminated food/water typhi enters thru GI and disseminates thru blood. Non-typhoid salmonellas (typhimurium and enteritidis) stay in GI and cause enterogastritis) risk if immunocomp or sickle cell dz typhi: survives in Φ ’s by messing with phagolysosome fusion distrib to organs and get organ-specific dz. non-typhi: stays in GI, get GI dz, granulocyte response Typhoid fever present with fever of unknown origin (“PUO”). Fever, HA, ab discomfort, const or diarrhea… +/- bradycardia, “rose spots,” and hepatosplenomegaly +/- anemia and leukopenia complications: cholecystitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis ~5% of ppl carriers (typhoid Mary) Non-typhoid salmonella self-limited diarrhea 12-48 hr incubation isolate and ID the organism Typhoid fever ampicilling, cipfofloxacin, or chloramphenicol vaccine-preventable (says in case but I’ve never heard of it) non-typhoid salmonella E. coli (UTI) UTI most often caused by E. coli. Other suspects are proteus, staph. Saprophyticus (young sexing woman), and pseudomonas (hospital) E. coli is gram – rod with peritrichous flagella and LPS UTI caused by normal bowel flora & more in women bc short urethra E. coli adheres to epithelial cells & prods toxin protected from host immune by K1 capsular antigen IgA and IgG prod cystitis (normal UTI): frequency of urination, dysuria (painful pee), and abdominal tenderness
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Cases(SB) - Microbiology Cases Organism Features Host...

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