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microNotes1 - Virus Bacteria Fungus Parasite Differences...

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Differences Eukaryote Prokaryote Drugs Nuclear Membrane Yes No Organelles Bound Unbound Digestive vacuoles Yes No Chromosomes Multiple Single DNA gyrasecan be targeted with quinoloneslike ciprofloxacin Membrane sterols Yes No Peptidoglycan No Yes Penicillins, cephalosporins Ribosomes 80s 70s Aminoglycosides, Macrolides Microbiology Basics Prion Virus Bacteria Fungus Parasite No No Yes Yes Yes Nucleic Acid No RNA/DNA RNA and DNA RNA and DNA RNA and DNA Nucleus None None Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Ribosomes None None 70s 80s 80s Mitochondria None None None Yes Yes Outer Surface None Proteincapsid Envelope Rigid wall Peptidoglycan Rigid wall Chitin Flexible membrane Replication Aggregates Requireshost Binary fission Budding or mitosis Mitosis Functions of normal flora •Prevent colonization and infection with pathogens •Produce B vitamins and Vitamin K in the intestine •Deconjugatebile acids Typhoid Mary: first person identified as a healthy carrier of Salmonella typhi in the United States. She infected 75 people over the course of 7 years Site Normal Flora Problem Colonizers Skin S.epidermidis Diptheroids Proprionobacteriumacnes Candida S.Aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nose S. epidermis Diptheroids Streptococci S. Aureus MRSA Clostridium perfingins Humans normally have permanent, nonpathogenic resident bacteria and yeast on skin and mucosa. Their numbers are about 10 times the number of human cells. The blood, lower respiratory tract, CSF, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, and urine are sterile and do not contain any normal flora. Nile Law : California state law that requires the screening of all high-risk patients for MRSA. High-risk criteria include: inpatient surgery, burn, ICU, dialysis, hospitalized or nursing home as a cook and was quarantined for 26 years. Mouth S.viridans Bacteroides Fusobacterium Streptococcus mutans Porphyromonasgingivalis Throat S.viridans Neisseriaspp. Haemophilusspp. S. pyogenies(Group A) Meningococci Colon Bacteroidesfragilis Enterobacteriaecae Lactobacillus Enterococci Clostridium C.difficile Vancomycin-resistant enterococci Vagina Lactobacillus Streptococci B. Fragilis Enterobacteriacae Candida GroupB Streptococci from the normal bowel flora can cause myonecrosisif inoculated into an anaerobic environment in a wound. Attachment Colonization Invasion Evasion of host defenses Host damage and Infection Steps in Microbial Pathogenesis Selecting antibiotics: choose an antibiotic to which the pathogen is likely sensitive, but which has the most limited spectrum so as to limit the development of resistance.
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General Bacteria Featur Gram Stain: Gram positive cells have a thick layer of peptidoglycan, which serves as a barrier to lipid decolorizing solvents. Since the cells cannot be decolorized, they remain purple despite addition of decolorizing agent.
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