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ChangMMW2OutlineLectureNineteen2011 - (2 Reliance on...

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Week Ten Outline Lecture Nineteen The Demise of the Polis and Course Conclusions I) The End of the Democratic Experiment a) From Socrates to Plato i) Plato’s main philosophical agenda: “How can society be reconstituted so that men may know happiness and justice”? (1) Not a democracy but an enlightened republic (2) Training of the Guardians (3) To Koinon —the “common good” b) “Progress broke the Polis”—Kitto’s main thesis i) Intellectual Progress Beyond Rational Inquiry (1) Tradition of Thales since the 6 th century (2) Increasing trend towards detachment and solipsism in 4 th century (a) Skeptics: Diogenes (b) Epicureans (c) Stoics (3) Each school furthered the demise of the polis ii) Economic Progress —The Impact of Athens’s Commercial Empire (1) Greater interest in commercial enterprise (2) Contributes to political lethargy (3) Loss of Autarkeia (self-sufficiency) (4) Cosmopolis vs. Polis iii) Military Progress Citizen army to Mercenary Army (1) Advancement in fighting techniques
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Unformatted text preview: (2) Reliance on mercenary armies iv) Specialization—The Demise of the Amateur Ideal (1) Can one remain an amateur for long, both as an individual and as a polis? c) Social Contradictions in Democracy i) Role of Slaves (1) Aristotle’s rationalization of slavery as natural ii) Role of Women (1) Managers of the oikos (household economies) (2) Marriage as purely functional and pragmatic II) The Spread of Hellenism a) Philip of Macedon i) Brought an end to the democratic polis system b) Alexander the Great i) The spread of Greek culture (336-323) c) What legacy did Hellenism leave for Western Civilization? III) Course Conclusions a) The Axial Age as a deep breath of heightened consciousness for humanity i) Its shared insistence on living the “examined life” b) What defined the wisdom forged in this age? c) Heeding the lingering voices of the Axial Age d) The Relevance of the Axial Age for today’s world...
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