Culture - CS 143 * Animal Cognition Lecture 11: The...

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CS 143 * Animal Cognition Lecture 11 : The Emergence of Culture Ontogeny - Primates & cetaceans characterized by prolonged immaturity and long life - Indicates prolonged dependence on learning ; a lot to learn to become competent (complex!) adults - Apes sexually mature at ~12 years vs. Tigers (also large-bodied), sexually mature at only 3 years - Groups have variety of age-class models at different stages - Menopause in a few cetaceans (Pilot whales, Orca) provide long-lived matrons w/knowledge, customs - Anecdote : Old ladies in NW straights die, Orca pod finally takes more reasonable route Evidence for Cultural Traditions (see Readings Whiten et al. 1999 and Rendell & Whitehead 2001) - Best if population differences cannot be attributed to ecological differences alone - e.g. Nuts and stones available in 2 chimp habitats, but only one population uses stones to crack nuts - Otherwise may more likely be individual trial-and-error learning (vs. socially-mediated transmission) - Controversial ! Some models require “human-specific” cognition (e.g. intentional imitation , teaching ) -??? Nonhuman Primates - e.g. Japanese macaques wash sweet potatoes, float seeds from sand (after adolescent female Imo ) - Spread laterally to her friends, then to their mothers, then to others, except oldest adult males - e.g. Cooperative hunting seen in some groups of Cebus , never in others - e.g. Chimps in Tai Forest use stones to crack nuts, in Gombe use logs, in Mahale don’t - e.g. Hunting Chimps in Tai have specific roles, share only with participants; In Kibale loosely organized, share with those whose favor they’re courting; In Gombe don’t - Note, ecology may also play a role , since East African forest harder to move/see through - e.g. Chimps in Bossou termite fish, in Gombe do it differently, in Mahale ant fish tho termites available - e.g. Cebus games - Finger-in-eye, suck-fur, etc. - See Reader for more; Plus, probably many others in other species that we do not yet know about ! - Above examples involve tools or other exceptional behavior, but some cultural traditions may be less obvious… Basic social repertoire may be cultural – i.e. largely learned through observation/co-participation)! - e.g. How and whom to groom, play with, support, oppose, when, etc
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Culture - CS 143 * Animal Cognition Lecture 11: The...

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