PrimateSoc - CS 143 * Animal Cognition Lecture 8: PRIMATE...

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CS 143 * Animal Cognition Lecture 8: PRIMATE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR Primates are fundamentally, absolutely, critically social ! - Primates shifted from multiple to single births, requiring extended care (maternal and sometimes paternal) - Care demands physical contact, infant held, carried; For most , close body contact sought thruout life - e.g. Grooming, Co-Huddling, Hugging, Kissing, are common in many species - Harlow (1950s): Primates raised in isolation do not develop appropriate social, sexual, parenting skills - Depending on species, if access to social others before adulthood, may recover some abilities - Need physical contact: Infant will cling to soft mom model even if food on wire mesh model - Co-housed juveniles without moms will cling to one another: “together-together monkeys (2007) suggest, earliest primates nocturnal & relatively solitary feeders - Improved “what-where-how much” cognition in later diurnal species enabled groups to access food - Groups better against increased predator pressure, but had to develop social skills - i.e. Group living raises issues of food & mate competition, signals of rank, oppor. for coop, etc. - So, what are some of the cognitive demands of such a dependence on social interaction? “The Social Function of Intellect” Humphrey (1976) - Social domain complex & unpredictable and therefore may be most cognitively demanding - Physical domain highly predictable - e.g. Physical causality (drop object, it falls) - Natural domain somewhat more difficult to predict - e.g. Rain predict ripe fruit? - Social domain: Agents with complex motives; Interaction changes contingencies that apply (i.e. Problem alters as a consequence of trying to solve it) = most difficult to predict - Especially demanding in Primates (and Cetaceans) since many show “Social Complexity” Social Complexity - De Waal (1996) defines as a society in which “ Power not = Rank - “Rank” = position in social hierarchy - Most social animals (including humans) have behaviorally-marked rank relationships - e.g. A displaces B who displaces C; C bows to B who bows to A, C salutes B who salutes A etc - Rank = Power when Rank alone translates into priority of access to resources (food, mates etc)
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PrimateSoc - CS 143 * Animal Cognition Lecture 8: PRIMATE...

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