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Chapter 8 Review Questions

Chapter 8 Review Questions - Questions Chapter 8 Questions...

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Questions Chapter 8 Questions for Review 1. Why does air pressure decrease with height more rapidly in cold air than in warm air? Cold air is smaller and denser, thus moving upward moves past a larger amount of molecules than in warm air, which is larger and less dense. 2. What can cause the air pressure to change at the bottom of a column of air? A colder column of air loses pressure more rapidly with height, thus at higher altitudes, warm air has higher pressure. A warm air column near a cold air column will transfer air molecules to the lower-pressure air at the top of the cool column, increasing the air pressure at the bottom of the column. At the same time, the cool column will now have a higher pressure at the bottom, and thus transfer air back to the warmer column. 3. What is considered standard sea-level atmospheric pressure in millibars? In inches of mercury? In hectopascals? 1013.25 mb = 29.92 in. Hg = 1013.25 hPa 4. How does an aneroid barometer differ from a mercury barometer? An aneroid barometer uses aneroid cells that contract and expand with air pressure changes, while a mercury barometer uses mercury in a sealed tube that rises or falls with changes in air pressure. 5. How does sea level pressure different from station pressure? Can the two ever be the same? Explain. Sea-level pressures differ from station pressure in that station pressure is corrected for temperature, gravity, and instrument error and is taken at the altitude of the station. The two can be the same if a station is located at sea level. 6. On an upper-level chart, is cold air aloft generally associated with low or high pressure? What about warm air aloft? Cold air aloft = low pressure, warm air aloft = high pressure. 7. What do Newton's first and second laws of motion tell us? The first law says that an object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion while no other forces act upon the object. The second law states that F = ma. For moving air, this means that if mass stays the same, then an increase in acceleration is linked to an increase in forces moving the air. 8. Explain why, in the Northern Hemisphere, the average height of contour lines on an upper-level isobaric chart tend to decrease northward. As you go north in the Northern Hemisphere you generally hit colder temperatures; cold air aloft is associated with low pressure, thus the contour lines that measure constant pressure tend to decrease northward. 9. What is the force that initially sets air in motion? Pressure Gradient Force 10. What does the Coriolis force do to moving air (a) in the Northern Hemisphere? (b) in the Southern Hemisphere? (a) Air in the Northern Hemisphere deflects to the right. (b) Air in the Southern Hemisphere deflects to the left 11. Explain how each of the following influences the Coriolis force: (a) rotation of the earth; (b) wind speed; (c) latitude.
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