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Chapter 12 Review Questions

Chapter 12 Review Questions - Chapter 12 Questions...

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Chapter 12 Questions Questions for Review 1. On a piece of paper , draw the different stages of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm as it goes through birth to decay according to the polar front (Norwegian) model. (A) Steps: (a) A segment of the polar front as a stationary front. (Trough of low pressure with higher pressure on both sides.) Cold air to the North, warm air to the south. Parallel flow along the front. (b) Under the right conditions a wavelike kink forms on the front. The wave that forms is known as a frontal wave. Wave cyclone – an extratropical cyclone that forms and moves along a front. The circulation of winds about the cyclone tends to produce a wavelike deformation on the front. (c) Steered by the winds aloft, the system typically moves east or northeastward and gradually becomes a fully developed open wave in 12 to 24 hours. Open wave – the stage of development of a wave cyclone where a cold front and a warm front exist, but no occluded front. The center of lowest pressure in the wave is located at the junction of two fronts. (d) Central pressure is now lower, several isobars encircle the wave. The more tightly packed isobars create a stronger cyclonic flow, winds swirl counter clock-wise and inward toward the low’s center. Energy for the storm is derived rising warm air and sinking cold air transforming potential energy to kinetic energy (energy of motion). Condensation supplies energy in the form of latent heat. Converging surface winds produce an increase of kinetic energy. The cold front advances on the warm front… (e) As the open wave moves eastward, central pressures continue to decrease, and the winds blow more vigorously. The faster-moving cold front constantly inches closer to the warm front, squeezing the warm sector into a smaller area. Eventually the cold front overtakes the warm front and the system becomes occluded. The storm is usually most intense at this time, with clouds and precipitation covering a large area. (f) The intense storm from step five gradually dissipates, because cold air now lies on both sides of the cyclone. Without the supply of energy provided by the rising warm, moist air, the old storm system dies out and gradually disappears. Occasionally, however a new wave will form on the westward end of the trailing cold front. The entire life cycle of a wave cyclone can last from a few days to over a week.
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. 2. Why do mid-latitude cyclones ”die-out” after they become occluded? (A) After a cyclone becomes occluded its warm sector no longer touches the core of the storm and can therefore no longer supply to the storm's core the energy associated with warm air uplift and the associated latent heat of condensation. 3. List four regions in North America where wave cyclones tend to develop.
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Chapter 12 Review Questions - Chapter 12 Questions...

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