assessments - Scaling Performance Assessments Strategies...

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Scaling Performance Assessments: Strategies for Managing Local Item Dependence Author(s): Wendy M. Yen Source: Journal of Educational Measurement, Vol. 30, No. 3, Performance Assessment (Autumn, 1993), pp. 187-213 Published by: National Council on Measurement in Education Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1435043 . Accessed: 07/09/2011 23:01 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] National Council on Measurement in Education is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Educational Measurement. http://www.jstor.org
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Journal of Educational Measurement Fall 1993, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 187-213 Scaling Performance Assessments: Strategies for Managing Local Item Dependence Wendy M. Yen CTB Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Performance assessments appear on a priori grounds to be likely to produce far more local item dependence (LID) than that produced in the use of traditional multiple-choice tests. This article (a) defines local item independence, (b) presents a compendium of causes of LID, (c) discusses some of LID's practical measure- ment implications, (d) details some empirical results for both performance assess- ments and multiple-choice tests, and (e) suggests some strategies for managing LID in order to avoid negative measurement consequences. Performance assessments require qualitatively different performance of students than do multiple-choice tests. One of the ways in which performance assessments differ from traditional multiple-choice tests is the expected level of local item dependence (LID). The items in traditional multiple-choice tests are usually carefully designed to be independent of one another. That is, the success on one item is not influenced by success on another. Multiple-choice items are not chained, and theoretically they could be presented to the student in any order without affecting the item difficulty. In contrast, for performance assessments a setting is established, and stu- dents can be asked to make multiple responses to directions or questions related to that setting. For example, consider a grade 5 test in language arts. The setting might be established with a short story. The student is asked to contrast two characters in the story, provide and defend an alternative story ending, and relate events in the story to a personal experience. In mathematics at grade 8, the setting could be a school holding a bake sale to raise money.
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