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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master title style 3 Earthquakes and Their Causes Hyndman/Hyndman Natural Hazards and Disasters , 3 rd Edition Fig. CO-3, p. 34 p. 35 Deadly Effects with Poor Quality Construction • 4:53 pm, January 12, 2010: Port-au- Prince, capital of Haiti , struck by magnitude 7.0 earthquake, killing as many as 250,000 people • On Enriquillo-Plantain Garden left-lateral strike-slip fault (last large quake in 1860), of plate boundary between Caribbean and North American plate Deadly Effects with Poor Quality Construction • Corruption, poverty and lack of construction standards led to collapse of thousands of buildings, including apartments, schools, hospitals, factories, hotels, the central cathedral, and local U.N. headquarters • Relief efforts and aid were sparse and slow, hampered by aftershocks and lack of resources, such as small, damaged airport • Hundreds of thousands of survivors remained in tent camps weeks later • Many left Port-au-Prince for countryside, only to return later, forced to look for income in the city Faults and Earthquakes • Faults : fractures in crust along which rocks on one side move past rocks on the other side • Measured according to amount of displacement: over several million years, west side of San Andreas fault has moved about 450 km to north • Some faults produce earthquakes when they shift, others produce almost none • Most faults along plate boundaries • Few faults in stable interior regions of continents Fig. 3-1, p. 37 Stepped Art Reverse/thrust fault Strike-slip fault Normal fault Fig. 3-2, p. 38 Fig. 3-2, p. 38 Faults and Earthquakes • Normal faults – Crustal extension – Rocks above steeply-inclined fault surface slip down and over rocks beneath fault surface • Reverse faults – Crustal compression – Rocks above steeply-inclined fault surface slip up and over rocks beneath fault surface – Thrust faults are same as reverse faults, but have more gently-inclined surface What type of fault accommodates crustal extension? • A) Strike-slip • B) Thrust • C) Normal Faults and Earthquakes • Strike-slip faults – Vertical surface – Rocks on one side of fault slip laterally past rocks on other side of fault – Where rocks on far side of fault slip to right: right-lateral strike-slip fault – Where rocks on far side of fault slip to left: left-lateral strike-slip fault Stepped Art Reverse/thrust fault Strike-slip fault Normal fault Fig. 3-2, p. 38 What type of fault accommodates crustal horizontal shortening and mountain building? • A) Strike-slip • B) Thrust • C) Normal 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Causes of Earthquakes • Commission appointed after great San Francisco earthquake of 1906 to find cause of earthquakes, headed by Andrew Lawson • Lawson and students had mapped San Andreas fault (SAF), but had no idea it caused earthquakes • After 1906 earthquake, they found that west side of SAF had shifted north by as much as 7 m Causes of Earthquakes • Commission theorized that the two sides of...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course GEO 107 taught by Professor Stidham during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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chapter3(1) - Click to edit Master title style 3...

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