chapter14(1) - Chapter 14 -- Hurricanes Geographic origins...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 -- Hurricanes Geographic origins of hurricanes How hurricanes are named Hurricane intensity scale Hurricane Frequency Areas at risk How hurricanes work Hurricane characteristics Conditions needed for a hurricane to form Hurricane damages Storm surge (rapid rise in sea level) Wave damage Wind damage Rainfall and flooding Mudflows Prediction of hurricane paths and intensity Hurricane Katrina Mitigation of hurricane damage Planning and preparation, Evacuation, Building codes, Insurance Hurricane Origins 12% 12% 7% 12% 15% 12% 30% cyclones hurricanes typhoons How Are Hurricanes Named? First use of proper names for cyclones by Australian forecaster in early 20 century after political figures whom he disliked 1950s-1952: North Atlantic Ocean hurricanes were identified by phonetic alphabet, then womens names 1979: National Weather Service six rotating lists of mens and womens names, with names of destructive hurricanes retired Pacific typhoons were assigned English womens names, but since 2000, names suggested by various nations: flowers, Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Hurricanes are categorized by wind speed Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Lower-category storms can do almost as much damage as higher-category storms Hurricane Frequency; Areas at Risk Average number of cyclones per year: 80-90 tropical storms 45 hurricanes/typhoons/cyclones-6 in Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico-1 to 2 will strike the US mainland per year Tropical storms and hurricanes by month, for 1944-2000 (North Atlantic region) Month Total Average JanuaryApril 3 0.1 May 8 0.1 June 31 0.5 July 50 0.9 August 151 2.6 September 198 3.5 October 100 1.8 November 26 0.5 December 4 0.1 http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Landsea/deadly/Table8.htm North Atlantic Hurricane Frequency North Atlantic Hurricane Frequency and Intensity http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/outlooks/hurricane.shtml ACE is a wind energy index that measures the combined strength and duration of the named storms Areas at Risk Potential number of hurricane strikes per 100 years >60 40-60 20-40 How hurricanes work Heat builds up in the air over warm parts of the ocean Warm, moist air rapidly rises creates areas of low pressure Rising air pulls more air into lower part of hurricane, because air moves from high pressure areas to low pressure areas Air rotates because of Coriolis effect As rotating air rises, the moisture condenses releases heat Air continues to be warmed, by released heat. Thus it continues to rise and rotate storm gets larger This continues as long as there is a source of warm, moist air Color on sea is precipitation Tan surfaces represent clouds A rrows are wind speed Storm is vertically exaggerated Hurricane acts as heat engine transfers heat from warm surface into upper atmosphere Average hurricane How Hurricanes Work...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course GEO 107 taught by Professor Stidham during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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chapter14(1) - Chapter 14 -- Hurricanes Geographic origins...

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