chapter15 - Chapter 15 Thunderstorms and Tornadoes How...

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Chapter 15 – Thunderstorms and Tornadoes How Thunderstorms Work Severe Thunderstorms How Tornadoes Develop (2 ways) 1. From mesocyclone in thunderstorm 2. Updraft from thunderstorm pulls horizontal rolling vortex to vertical position How do tornadoes differ from hurricanes? Tornado damages and safety Other hazards related to thunderstorms: Lightning Hail
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How Thunderstorms Work Two elements must be present for thunderstorm development: 1. Warm air 2. Moisture Thunderstorm formation begins when warm, moist air begins to uplift. Warm, moist air is uplifted by one of 3 mechanisms: 1. Cold air pushing under warm air along cold front (most common) 2. Localized afternoon ground heating—hot air rises 3. Warm air pushed up a mountain side
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How Thunderstorms Work Warm and moist air rapidly rises into colder air and water vapor condenses, releasing heat The air continues to be warmed, by released heat. Thus it continues rising (the “ updraft ”), and carries condensed micro-droplets of water up. This forms the storm cloud (cumulus cloud). Eventually water droplets combine to form larger drops, which fall and create downdraft which helps pull cold, dry air from above Storm dissipates when enough cold air has been pulled in Gas liquid --this transition releases heat
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How Thunderstorms Work Early stage : continuous updraft of moist, warm air Mature stage : downdraft develops with heavy rain and pulls in cooler, drier air; updrafts and downdrafts result in gusty winds (including downbursts), lightning , heavy rain , possibly hail Dissipating stage : downdrafts have dragged in so much cool, dry air that they dominate Updraft Rising warm air Downdraft Updraft
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How Thunderstorms Work www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7t.html Updrafts in cumulus cloud Rising warm, moist air
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chapter15 - Chapter 15 Thunderstorms and Tornadoes How...

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