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Unformatted text preview: Writing In the Beginning Was Orality The Vedic (Sanskrit) tradition å_i©nmI=Le pu+roih=tM y+Ôßy= de+vmf+i{vj=m` > hota=rM r{n+Dat=mm` >> 1 >> agním 8i™le puróhita3m yajñásya devám ™rtvíjam | hót7ara3m ratnadh&atamam || 1 || 'I invoke Agni, the foremost, God of the sacrifice, priest; libator (priest), most bestowing blessings.' 1028 Hymns, with an average of about 7 verses, about 432,000 syllables Backup 1 (plus grammatical analysis) agnim 8i™l7e purohita3m agnim | 8i™l7e | pura¡h ’hitam | … Backup 2-n (Additional modes of recitation) agnim | 8i™l7e | pura¡h ’hitam | … agnim 8i™la 8i™l7e ’gnim 8i™l7e purohita3m … Forerunners of Writing Proto-Writing and Development of Writing 54 “ox/cow” = 54 CATTLE All Writing From Mesopotamia (Sumerian) ? Sumerian God Sky Star Sun Egyptian Chinese ba ma a. JAGUAR [balam] b. JAGUAR [balam] + subscript phonetic indicator [m(a)] la ma c. [ba] + [la] + [m(a)] = ti ‘arrow’ ≤ = ti ‘life’ = sun ≤ ≤ sun, day, god = sun vs. . etc. = day man king ‘water, liquid, lake, sea, etc.’ ‘sea’ = two women ≤ ≤ = discord ‘quarrel, discord, etc.’ = Neilson . = Sunday, sundae = shelf ≤ . [-se] = day ≤ [dV] (i.e. [d] plus any vowel, or no vowel at all) = hang ≤ [Vfl] (i.e. any vowel + velar nasal [ fl] ) = tree ≤ [tri] or [dri] = sun-[dri] . = sundry = [-se] [dV] [Vfl] = shedding = sun-[Vfl] = sunning = discord/quarrel + phonetic indicator ‘barrel’ = quarrel + Vng = quarreling . = Neilson hangs Sunday Further Development of Mesopotamian Writing Stage I Stage II Stage III “CUNEIFORM” Stage IV (a) Phonetic values: Logographic value: (b) 7e tar, kud, -sil, Áhas ‘house’ (= Sum. 7e, Assyr. b8itu) vowel; and long vowels are written as combinations of two short vowels (see Illustration 24). Ideally, the script would have had a different symbol for each consonant + vowel combination; but as Illustration 23 shows, only the set of consonant characters with an inherenta-vowel is complete. These are the “base consonants”, which are also used to designate consonants without an inherent vowel. Missing characters for other consonant + vowel combinations are produced by placing the i- or u-vowel symbol after the base consonants. Development of Syllabary (Old Persian) a Vowels b c c ç d f g h x y j _ k i a u ai u b c ç d D! f g h x y jJ ˚ k l m n p r s -s t ! w z i u l mMµ n ~ p r ® s ß † t qQ w z Illustration 23: Old Persian syllabary xa xa sa -sa ya ya a a ra ra sa -sa = x-say7ar-sa = xšayārša ‘Xerxes’ ation 24: The name of King Xerxes in the Old Persian syllaba nations have been advanced for the evidently inconsistent character le is that at a certain point, the decision was made not to wait any lon script, but to go ahead and use whatever had been developed by that lease of software before all the “bugs” are worked out. Presumably ty Persian empire were getting impatient with the slow progress of g on the writing system and decided to go ahead and use an incompl Development of Consonantal Alphabet (Abjad) ROOT: √K T B ‘write’ — kit7ab ‘book’, k7atib ‘writer’ etc. f y cn rd ths y r vry clvr … (V) n (V) -s (V) y (V) r (V) q (V) Ú (V) h (V) k (V) w (V) h (V) ¡ g (V) b (V) Áh (V) t (V) p (V) =h (V) ™t (V) f (V) s (V) d (V) m (V) 5s (V) ¡d (V) The following is reported as an actual answer to a 6thgrade history test: Ancient Egypt was inhabited by mummies and they all wrote in hydraulics. They lived in the Sarah Dessert. The climate of the Sarah is such that the inhabitants have to live elsewhere. Abjad to Alphabet By some sheer dumb luck and then additional vowels thrown in for good measure … Some other developments F U † A R K G W f u † [th] a r k g w H N I J ‰ P Z S h n i j [y] E p z s T B E M L ˚ O D t b e m l ˚ <ng> o d EK HLEWAGASTIZ HOLTIJAZ HORNA TAWIDO ‘I, Hlewagast of Holt, made the horn’ b l a o t ˚ u s c z e n V m g v DO h d q r i E T I M A Q Q I C ATT DOVETI MAQQI CATTINI ‘(Memorial Stone of) Dowetas, son of Cattinas’ I N I A = 3 strokes: can be written in one stroke: = 2 strokes: 8 can be written in one stroke: or 8 (This is a medieval cursive/lower case form of the letter.) Decipherment ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course LING 210 taught by Professor Adrianamolina-munoz during the Spring '11 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

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