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Unformatted text preview: Minerals Topics:-- What are Minerals?-- Basic Chemistry-- Characteristics of Minerals-- Silicate Minerals: most abundant, and if you understand this you get everything... What are Minerals? Definition:-- Naturally occurring For example, look at these two gem stones, the top one Amethysts in geode: minerals-- inorganic solid Rock Salt (Halite) - Inorganic. No life form necessary in order for halite to form. Just need a temperature change. Sugar: Not a Mineral - Organic. Diamonds: Minerals Pearl: Not a mineral, (organic) Glacier Ice: a mineral - (solid) River water: Not a mineral - (liquid)-- orderly arrangement of atoms (CRYSTAL STRUCTURE) e.g., Graphite DIAMOND Both are made of Carbon Main difference in crystal structure Graphite has several different 'sheets' they are not compressed. Boundaries are very weak. You can transfer your lead from your pencil to the paper. Since you are 'breaking' carbon. Natural diamond are fund in deep earth, high pressure, high temperature. At that kind of condition, they are all connected together. Covalent bonds with Diamonds. Volcanic Glass (Obsidian) is NOT A MINERAL (NO CRYSTAL STRUCTURE!) -- definitive chemical composition NaCl: Halite SiO(2): Quartz Different elements make different kinds of mineral. For example, On Si stick onto 2 oxygen. Basic Chemistry: (A) Elements and Atoms-- element: a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances e.g., hydrogen, oxygen-- atom: smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element (radius ~ 10-8 cm) ( B) Atomic Structure-- Protons& neutrons form the nucleus of an atom represents tiny fraction of the volume at the center of an atom, but nearly all of the mass-- Electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete shells r energy levels ....
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course GEO 101 taught by Professor Chu-yucheng during the Spring '10 term at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
- Spring '10