Wooldridge IE AISE SSM ch09

# Wooldridge IE AISE SSM ch09 - CHAPTER 9 SOLUTIONS TO...

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This edition is intended for use outside of the U.S. only, with content that may be different from the U.S. Edition. This may not be resold, copied, or distributed without the prior consent of the publisher. 47 CHAPTER 9 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 9.1 There is functional form misspecification if 6 β 0 or 7 0, where these are the population parameters on ceoten 2 and comten 2 , respectively. Therefore, we test the joint significance of these variables using the R -squared form of the F test: F = [(.375 .353)/(1 .375)][(177 – 8)/2] 2.97. With 2 and df , the 10% critical value is 2.30 awhile the 5% critical value is 3.00. Thus, the p -value is slightly above .05, which is reasonable evidence of functional form misspecification. (Of course, whether this has a practical impact on the estimated partial effects for various levels of the explanatory variables is a different matter.) 9.3 (i) Eligibility for the federally funded school lunch program is very tightly linked to being economically disadvantaged. Therefore, the percentage of students eligible for the lunch program is very similar to the percentage of students living in poverty. (ii) We can use our usual reasoning on omitting important variables from a regression equation. The variables log( expend ) and lnchprg are negatively correlated: school districts with poorer children spend, on average, less on schools. Further, 3 < 0. From Table 3.2, omitting lnchprg (the proxy for poverty ) from the regression produces an upward biased estimator of 1 [ignoring the presence of log( enroll ) in the model]. So when we control for the poverty rate, the effect of spending falls. (iii) Once we control for lnchprg , the coefficient on log( enroll ) becomes negative and has a t of about –2.17, which is significant at the 5% level against a two-sided alternative. The coefficient implies that n 10 math Δ (1.26/100)(% Δ enroll ) = .0126(% Δ enroll ). Therefore, a 10% increase in enrollment leads to a drop in math10 of .126 percentage points. (iv) Both math10 and lnchprg are percentages. Therefore, a ten percentage point increase in lnchprg leads to about a 3.23 percentage point fall in math10 , a sizeable effect. (v) In column (1) we are explaining very little of the variation in pass rates on the MEAP math test: less than 3%. In column (2), we are explaining almost 19% (which still leaves much variation unexplained). Clearly most of the variation in math10 is explained by variation in lnchprg . This is a common finding in studies of school performance: family income (or related factors, such as living in poverty) are much more important in explaining student performance than are spending per student or other school characteristics. 9.5 The sample selection in this case is arguably endogenous. Because prospective students may look at campus crime as one factor in deciding where to attend college, colleges with high crime rates have an incentive not to report crime statistics. If this is the case, then the chance of

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Wooldridge IE AISE SSM ch09 - CHAPTER 9 SOLUTIONS TO...

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