Lecture 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization Simplest...

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Unformatted text preview: The Chemical Level of Organization Simplest (most basic) level of biological organization Goal of this lecture: Develop an appreciation for the properties of molecules in solution Levels of Biological Organization Chemical Cellular Tissue Organs System Level Organismic Level Basic Issues A. Atoms, elements, molecules (compounds) Atoms - simplest unit of matter Comprised of protons neutrons electrons Chemical properties established by the number of protons and electrons charge + 0 - Structure of Atoms The atomic number of an element, Z , is equal to the number of protons and this defines the element. For example, carbon atoms contain 6 protons in their nucleus so the atomic number "Z" of carbon is 6. The atomic number of sodium is 11 Relative number of protons (+) and electrons (-) defines if the particle has a net neutral, positive or negative charge particles with net charge are called Ions (+) cations (-) anions Chemical Notation (shorthand) Major Elements Element - substance that cannot be split into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means H - hydrogen C - carbon O - oxygen N - nitrogen P - phosphorus Ca - calcium Na - sodium K - potassium Cl - chlorine Atom Element Molecule (compound) - assemblage of atoms (same or different) held together by Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonds - attach adjacent atoms Two ways of doing this: 1. use attractive force of electrical charge - ionic bond 2. share electrons - covalent bond Ionic bonds...
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Lecture 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization Simplest...

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