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Lecture 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization...

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The Chemical Level of Organization Simplest (most basic) level of biological organization Goal of this lecture: Develop an appreciation for the properties of molecules in solution
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Levels of Biological Organization • Chemical • Cellular • Tissue • Organs System Level Organismic Level
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Basic Issues A. Atoms, elements, molecules (‘compounds’) Atoms - simplest unit of matter Comprised of protons neutrons electrons Chemical properties established by the number of protons and electrons ‘charge’ + 0 -
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Structure of Atoms
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The atomic number of an element, Z , is equal to the number of protons and this defines the element. For example, carbon atoms contain 6 protons in their nucleus so the atomic number "Z" of carbon is 6. The atomic number of sodium is 11
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Relative number of protons (+) and electrons (-) defines if the particle has a net neutral, positive or negative charge particles with net charge are called ‘Ions’ (+) cations (-) anions
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Chemical Notation (‘shorthand’) Major Elements Element - substance that cannot be split into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means H - hydrogen C - carbon O - oxygen N - nitrogen P - phosphorus Ca - calcium Na - sodium K - potassium Cl - chlorine
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Atom Element Molecule (compound) - assemblage of atoms (same or different) held together by Chemical Bonds
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Chemical Bonds - attach adjacent atoms Two ways of doing this: 1. use attractive force of electrical charge - ionic bond 2. ‘share’ electrons - covalent bond
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