Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Bone formation and bone growth Bone formation...

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Bone formation and bone growth
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Bone formation • Bones of an infant can be soft in certain regions: – Fontanels (soft spots on skull) – Epiphysis of long bones made of cartilage in infant – Epiphyseal plates stay as cartilage until adulthood (end of puberty)
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Bone formation Bones of fetus (before birth) composed of 1) Loose connective tissue – mesenchyme 2) Hyaline cartilage Ossification = replacement of connective tissue by bone begins during the second month of development
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2 Types of Ossification 1) Intramembranous ossification “within membrane” Mesenchyme b bone 2) Endochondral ossification “inside cartilage” Mesenchyme b cartilage b bone
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Intramembranous ossification Bones formed by this process: – Cranial bones (frontal, parietal…) – Mandible – Sternum – Clavicle – Heterotropic bone formation • sesamoid bones • abnormal stresses can stimulate bone formation in areas where bone is not normally found
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Intramembranous Ossification Summary of steps: 1) Development of ossification center Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteogenic cells, then into osteoblasts Osteoblasts secrete bone matrix 2) Calcification osteoblasts deposit calcium into the matrix osteoblasts differentiate into osteocytes 3) Formation of trabecullae (spongy bone) 4) Development of periosteum Remodelling of spongy bone to compact bone
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Calcification vs. Ossification
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Lecture 11 - Bone formation and bone growth Bone formation...

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