Unit 04 Flashcards - Major regions of the brain 1. Brain...

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Unformatted text preview: Major regions of the brain 1. Brain stem 2. Cerebellum 3. Diencephalons 4. Cerebrum The brain stem 1. Medulla oblongata 2. Pons 3. Midbrain The brain stem: Medulla oblongata Most vital part of the brain because it houses the respiratory and cardiovascular control centers o Respiratory center controls the rate and depth of breathing o Cardiovascular center is responsible for the rate and force of the heartbeat and blood pressure reflexes o Other reflex centers in the medulla oblongata are for coughing, vomiting, and sneezing The brain stem: Pons Has respiratory centers that assist the medulla oblongata in controlled breathing Also relays information to the diencephalon and the cerebellum The brain stem: Midbrain Cerebral peduncles white fibers that connect the upper and lower brain areas Corpora quadrigemina composed of: o 2 superior colliculi have reflex centers involved in eye, head, and neck movements with visual stimulation o 2 inferior colliculi have reflex centers involved in auditory stimuli that result in head and trunk movements Cerebellum 1. 2 cerebellar hemispheres 2. Vermis Cerebellum: Cerebellar hemispheres Cerebellar cortex gray matter on the exterior o Has slender, pleated gyri or folia (folds) that increase the surface area allowing for more neuron cell bodies Arbor vitae white matter deep to the gray matter, appears as branches of a tree Cerebellum: Vermis Connects the two hemispheres Cerebellum (functions) Regulates posture and balance Smoothes and coordinates skilled skeletal muscles movements Connected to the brain by the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles Diencephalon 1. Thalamus 2. Hypothalamus 3. Epithalamus Diencephalon: Thalamus Composed of paired, egg-shaped bodies centrally located in the diencephalon Each cerebral hemisphere contains half of the thalamus, which is connected by a small bridge called the intermediate mass Diencephalon: Thalamus (functions) Grand Central relay station principle relay station for sensory fibers and some somatic motor fibers o Sensory fibers that synapse in the thalamus are relayed to a particular area of the cerebral cortex to be interpreted, and other fibers relay messages to the somatic motor cortex Filters out unnecessary sensory information and is involved in consciousness, emotions, learning, and memory Diencephalon: Hypothalamus Infundibulum o Stalk that connect the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus Mammillary Bodies o Two small, round masses that are relay stations for smell and taste reflexes Optic chiasm o Area where the optic nerves cross Pituitary gland o The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland Diencephalon: Hypothalamus Functions Has important nuclei (a group of nerve cell bodies) that control many body functions and homeostasis Some of the major functions include intergrating and controlling the pituitary gland and hormonal functions, autonomic functions, emotions and behavior, body temperature, eating, and drinking Diencephalon: Epithalamus Pineal gland or body o Small endocrine gland that secrets the hormone melatonin Cerebrum (functions)...
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Unit 04 Flashcards - Major regions of the brain 1. Brain...

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