Nervous System

Nervous System - Nervous System Part 1 1 Overview n n n...

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Unformatted text preview: Nervous System Part 1 1 Overview n n n Function: sensory input, integration, and motor output Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) n n n n Afferent division Efferent division Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system 2 Structure of Nervous Tissue n 2 different types of cells: 1. 2.. 2 Neurons Neuroglia 1. CNS 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Microglia Ependymal cells PNS 1. 2. Schwann cells Satellite cells 3 Neurons n n Dendrites Soma n n Axon hillock Axon n n n Trigger area Axon collaterals Axon terminals 4 Classification of Neurons n 1. Two ways to classify Structural n n n 2. Unipolar neurons multipolar neurons bipolar neurons Functional • • • Sensory (afferent) neuron Interneuron Motor (efferent) neuron 5 White vs. Gray Matter n White matter n n Myelinated fibers Gray matter n Unmyelinated fibers 6 n Skip Figure 16.7 7 EXERCISE 20 8 The Brain n n n Highly elaborate organ that serves as control center Catalog and integrate information and send response Responsible for many processes: n n n Coordination of skeletal muscle Control memory, emotion, and intelligence Activity of visceral organs 9 Parts of the Brain n Four main (principal) regions n n n n n Brain stem Cerebellum Diencephalon Cerebrum Cerebrum n n n Right & Left hemispheres Processing sensory info and sends motor response Higher mental processing 10 The Cerebrum n 1. 3 main regions of the cerebrum Cerebral cortex n n 2.. 2 3. Outer layer of grey matter Functions: integrate sensory info, initiate motor output, thought process, & emotions White Matter Basal Ganglia n n Skeletal muscle movement Emotions & motivation 11 White Matter n n White matter holds many fibers for communication Association fibers n n Commissural fibers n n Fornix Corpus callosum Projection fibers n Internal capsule 12 Surface Features and Terminology n n n n n n n n n n 5 Lobes Gyrus = elevation Sulcus = groove Central sulcus Precentral gyrus Postcentral gyrus Lateral cerebral sulcus Parieto-occipital sulcus Longitudinal fissure Transverse fissure 13 Functional organization n Brain is divided into 3 types of functional areas: Motor Areas n Sensory Areas n Association Areas n 14 Motor Areas Primary Motor Area Broca’s speech area 15 Sensory and Association Areas Primary Gustatory Lateral cerebral sulcus 16 Functional Areas: Figure 20.7 17 The Brain Stem n 3 Structures comprise the brainstem n n n Medulla oblongata Pons Midbrain n n Cerebral peduncles Corpora quadrigemina n n 2 Superior colliculli 2 Inferior colliculi 18 Cerebellum n n n n n n 2 cerebellar hemispheres Vermis Folia Arbor vitae Cerebellar cortex Functions: 19 Diencephalon 3 structures comprise the diencephalon Thalamus n 1. • • Relay station Intermediate Mass Epithalamus 2. • Pineal gland Hypothalamus 3. • • • • • Controls of homeostasis Pituitary gland Infundibulum Mammillary bodies Optic chiasm 20 Cranial meninges 21 Flow of Cerebrospinal fluid Choroid Plexus and Ependymal cells Lateral Ventrical Interventricular foramen Third Ventricle Cerebral Aqueduct Fourth Ventricle Medial and lateral Aperatures of 4th Ventricle Arachnoid space of Brain and Spinal Cord Arachnoid Villi Dural Sinus 22 Exercise 21 Cranial Nerves 23 Cranial nerves n n n n n n Emerge directly from the brain Part of the peripheral nervous system Function (general) is either Sensory (S), Motor (M), or Both (B) Action refers to specifics of the function Always name by stating nerve followed by its corresponding roman numeral Nerve vs. Tract 24 Cranial Nerves 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Old Opie Occasionally Tries Trigonometry And 7. Feels 8. Very 9. Gloomy 10. Vague 11. And 12. Hypoactive 25 Olfactory I n Old n Function: S Action: Sense of Smell n Olfactory I 26 Optic II n Opie n Function: S Action: Vision n Optic II 27 Oculomotor III n Occasionally Oculomotor III n Function: M n Action: moving eyeball, opening eyelid, constriction of pupils, focusing light 28 Trochlear IV n Tries n Function: M Action: Moves eyeball n Trochlear IV 29 Trigeminal V n Trigonometry Trigeminal V n Function: B n Action: Sensation to face (touch, temp, and pain) and muscles of mastication 30 Abducens VI n And n Function: M Action: Moves eyeball n Abducens VI 31 Facial VII n Feels n Function: B n Action: n n Facial VII Sensory: Taste Motor: Facial expressions, and Secretion of tears and saliva 32 Vestibulocochlear VIII n Very n Function: S Action: hearing and equilibrium n Vestibulocochlear VIII 33 Glossopharyngeal IX n Gloomy n Function: B n Actions: n n Glossopharyngeal IX Motor: swallowing, salivation, gagging, control of blood pressure and respiration Sensory: posterior 1/3 of tongue 34 Vagus X n Vague Vagus X n Function: B n Actions: swallowing, speech and regulation of visceral organs 35 Accessory XI n And Accessory XI n Function: M n Action: Swallowing, head neck and shoulder movements 36 Hypoglossal XII n Hypoactive Hypoglossal XII n Function: M n Action: Tongue movement for speech, food manipulation and swallowing 37 Cranial Nerve Functions n Functions: Sensory (S), Motor (M), Both (B) n Some say money matters, but my brother says big brains matter more 38 39 Identification for the practical n n Be able to identify all 12 cranial nerves from a diagram of a human or sheep brain. Be able to identify cranial nerves I, II and V from the sheep specimen. 40 To do Fill out the figures in exercises 16 and 20 and Fig 21.1 n Using the sheep and human brains to identify the structures from activity 10 on page 312 n n Look at the models of the neuron to identify the different structures, functional areas, and surface feature terminology 41 ...
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