osmosis and histology 1 slide per page

osmosis and histology 1 slide per page - Osmosis and...

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Unformatted text preview: Osmosis and Histology (part 1) Rebecca Gilbert Section 002 B Office Hours: Thursdays 2-4 Gittings 3D 1 Body Water n n n n Intracellular Fluid = ICF = All water inside of cells Extracellular Fluid = ECF =All water outside of cells Interstitial Fluid = ISF = Water between tissue cells ECF = ISF + blood plasma 2 The Plasma Membrane n n n Surrounds cells Separates inside from outside Composed of: Phospholipid bilayer n Proteins n 3 Membrane Permeability n Plasma membrane regulates flow of what enters and leaves the cell n What can & cannot cross the membrane? permeable: hydrophobic and uncharged molecules n impermeable: ions and large hydrophilic molecules n Slightly permeable: small uncharged hydrophilic molecules n 4 Plasma Membrane Proteins n n n Proteins act as carriers and channels Each channel or carrier has a specificity what particles pass through it. For example: H2O is allowed to cross via protein channels called aquaporins. 5 Transport across the plasma membrane n n Active Process: Requires energy to transport substances ([low] to [high]) Passive Process: does not require the cell to expend energy to allow a substance to cross the membrane ([high] to [low]) 6 Passive Processes n Diffusion: the net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration Time 7 Passive Processes n Osmosis: diffusion of a solvent (water) through a selectively permeable membrane n Water moves from low solute concentration to high solute concentration 8 Osmosis n If the concentration of the ICF and ECF is known then we can predict which way water will move. 9 10 Solutions n n n When you add a solution you change the ECF and can then observe how this affects the ICF. ICF has a salt concentration of 0.9% Solutions are always named based on how the ECF compares to the ICF. hyperosmotic = 5% NaCl n hyposmotic = distilled water n isosmotic = 0.9% NaCl n 11 Tonicity n n n Tonicity is the effect of a solution on the shape of a cell When water moves across a cell we define the changes as tonicity n Hypertonic n Hypotonic n Isotonic As cell shape changes you get either hemolysis or crenation of the cell n Note: for our purposes ‘tonic’ and ‘osmotic’ can be used interchangeably 12 Tonicity Experiment n n n n n n n Work in groups of 2 or 3 Activity 3, pg 45 & 46 start with #3: prediction First, write a prediction Get 3 slides and 6 cover slips and put a drop of blood on the 2 far ends of the slide Place a drop of solution over the blood on one side, and then put a coverslip over each drop Using the microscope, note changes that occur and compare results among the 3 solutions For the distilled water solution you want to add the drop of solution at the very last moment in order to observe the change 13 Exercise 6 Histology 14 Definitions n n Tissue: A collection of similar cells that perform a specific function Histology: microscopic study of the structure of tissues and cells 15 Ex: Skin Cancer Which image represents the individual that has skin cancer? 16 Primary Tissues n Four Primary (Basic) Tissue types Epithelial tissue: covers surfaces, lines cavities, and forms glands n Muscle tissue: responsible for movement n Nervous tissue: receives/generates nerve impulses for communication n Connective tissue: protects other tissues; holds tissues together n n Each primary tissue has subcategories which we call “SPECIFIC” tissue types 17 Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue n n n n n 6 SPECIFIC types SPECIFIC Avascular Separated from underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane Apical surface next to open space (lumen) Basal surface adjacent to basement membrane 18 Epithelial Tissue n Strategy for characterization: 1. 2. Look for lumen (the open white space) Determine number of cell layers – – 3. 1 layer = simple many layers = stratified Classify Cell Shape – – – Flat/thin = squamous Cubed = cuboidal Tall = columnar 19 Simple squamous epithelium 20 Simple squamous epithelium 21 Simple squamous epithelium 22 Simple squamous epithelium (alveoli) 23 Simple squamous epithelium 24 Simple cuboidal epithelium 25 Simple cuboidal epithelium 26 Simple cuboidal epithelium 27 Simple cuboidal epithelium 28 Simple columnar epithelium 29 Simple columnar epithelium 30 Simple columnar epithelium 31 Simple columnar epithelium 32 Simple columnar epithelium 33 Stratified squamous epithelium 34 Stratified squamous epithelium 35 Stratified squamous epithelium 36 Stratified squamous epithelium 37 Transitional epithelium 38 Transitional Epithelium 39 Transitional epithelium 40 Transitional epithelium 41 Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium 42 Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium 43 Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium 44 Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium 45 Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium 46 Break n n Look at epithelium histology under microscopes Return all slides to their numbered slot, n n n Do Not Rearrange The Slides Not all samples will look like the images There will be microscopes on the practical! 47 Muscle Tissue n 3 SPECIFIC types SPECIFIC Skeletal Muscle Tissue n Smooth Muscle Tissue n Cardiac Muscle Tissue n 48 Muscle Tissue n Features: Muscle cells (fibers) that contract to produce movement n Long cells may have one or more nuclei n Some muscle tissues have striations n Intercalated disks (cardiac muscle) for communication between cells n 49 Muscle Tissue n Strategy for characterization Look at shape/arrangement of cells n Multinucleated vs. uninucleated? n Striations? n Intercalated disks? n 50 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 51 Skeletal muscle tissue 52 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 53 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 54 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 55 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 56 Smooth muscle tissue 57 Smooth muscle tissue 58 Smooth muscle tissue 59 Nervous Tissue n n 6 specific cell types For now just know 2 specific cell types n Neurons- send and receive impulses n Key features n n n n n Dendrites- receive sensory information DendritesAxons- sends signals to promote a response AxonsSoma (cell body)- houses the nucleus body)- Neuroglia (5 types) - support neurons Specific tissue type is same name as primary tissue type 60 Nervous tissue 61 Nervous tissue 62 Nervous tissue 63 Nervous tissue 64 Break n Look at Muscle and Nervous tissue under microscopes 65 Quiz Information n 8 points from today Cell experiment and background n Epithelium, muscle and nervous tissue n n 2 points general connective tissue terms n Page 60 of lab manual 66 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course PSIO 201 taught by Professor Stanescu during the Summer '08 term at Arizona.

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