osmosis and histology part 1

osmosis and histology part 1 - Body Water n Osmosis and...

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Unformatted text preview: Body Water n Osmosis and Histology (part 1) Rebecca Gilbert Section 002 B Office Hours: Thursdays 2-4 2Gittings 3D n n n Intracellular Fluid = ICF = All water inside of cells Extracellular Fluid = ECF =All water outside of cells Interstitial Fluid = ISF = Water between tissue cells ECF = ISF + blood plasma The Plasma Membrane n n n Surrounds cells Separates inside from outside Composed of: Membrane Permeability n Plasma membrane regulates flow of what enters and leaves the cell n What can & cannot cross the membrane? Phospholipid bilayer n Proteins permeable: hydrophobic and uncharged molecules impermeable: ions and large hydrophilic molecules n Slightly permeable: small uncharged hydrophilic molecules n n n Transport across the plasma membrane Plasma Membrane Proteins n n n Proteins act as carriers and channels Each channel or carrier has a specificity what particles pass through it. For example: H2O is allowed to cross via protein channels called aquaporins. aquaporins. n n Active Process: Requires energy to transport substances Passive Process: does not require the cell to expend energy to allow a substance to cross the membrane 1 Passive Processes n Diffusion: the net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to one of low concentration Passive Processes n Osmosis: diffusion of a solvent (water) through a selectively permeable membrane n Water moves from low solute concentration to high solute concentration Time Osmosis n If the concentration of the ICF and ECF is known then we can predict which way water will move. Solutions Solutions n n n When adding a solution what changes is the ECF and observing how this change affects the ICF. ICF has a salt concentration of 0.9% Solutions are always named based on how the ECF compares to the ICF. hyperosmotic = 5%NaCl hyposmotic = distilled water n isosmotic = .9% NaCl n n Tonicity n n n Tonicity is the effects the shape of a cell When water moves across a cell we define the changes as tonicity n Hypertonic n Hypotonic n Isotonic When water moves across something other than a cell it is considered osmosis n Note: for our purposes ‘tonic’ and ‘osmotic’ can be used tonic’ osmotic’ interchangeably 2 Tonicity Experiment n n n n n n n Work in groups of 2 or 3 Activity 3, pg 45 & 46 start with #3: prediction First, write a prediction Get 3 slides and cover slips and get a drop of blood per slide Place coverslip over blood, then bring into focus under microscope up to the 40x objective lens Then add a drop of solution at the corner of the slide and observe any changes in cell shape Compare the solutions added to blood samples Exercise 6 Definitions n n Tissue: A collection of similar cells that perform a specific function Histology: microscopic study of the structure of tissues and cells Primary Tissues n Four Primary (Basic) Tissue types Epithelial tissue: covers surfaces, lines cavities, and forms glands n Muscle tissue: responsible for movement n Nervous tissue: receives/generates nerve impulses for communication n Connective tissue: protects other tissues; holds tissues together n n Each primary tissue has subcategories which we call “SPECIFIC” tissue types SPECIFIC” Epithelial Tissue Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue n n n n n 6 SPECIFIC types SPECIFIC Avascular Separated from underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane Apical surface next to open space (lumen) Basal surface adjacent to basement membrane n Strategy for characterization: 1. 2. Look for lumen (the open white space) Determine number of cell layers – – 3. 1 layer = simple many layers = stratified Classify Cell Shape – – – Flat/thin = squamous Cubed = cuboidal Tall = columnar 3 Simple squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium Simple squamous epithelium (alveoli) Simple squamous epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium 4 Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Simple columnar epithelium 5 Simple columnar epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium 6 Transitional epithelium Transitional Epithelium Transitional epithelium Transitional epithelium Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium 7 Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium Pseudostratified cilliated columnar epithelium Break n n Look at epithelium histology under microscopes Return all slides to their numbered slot, n n n Muscle Tissue Muscle Tissue n 3 SPECIFIC types SPECIFIC Skeletal Muscle Tissue n Smooth Muscle Tissue n Cardiac Muscle Tissue n Do Not Rearrange The Slides Not all samples will look like the images There will be microscopes on the practical! n Features to look for: Muscle cells (fibers) that contract to produce movement n Long cells may have one or more nuclei n Some muscle tissues have striations n Intercalated disks (cardiac muscle) for communication between cells n 8 Muscle Tissue n Skeletal Muscle Tissue Strategy for characterization Look at shape/arrangement of cells Multinucleated vs. uninucleated? uninucleated? n Striations? n Intercalated disks? n n Skeletal muscle tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue 9 Cardiac Muscle Tissue Smooth muscle tissue n Smooth muscle tissue Nervous Tissue n Smooth muscle tissue Nervous tissue 6 specific cell types For now just know 2 specific cell types n Neurons- send and receive impulses Neuronsn Key n n n n n features Dendrites- receive sensory information DendritesAxons- sends signals to promote a response AxonsSoma (cell body)- houses the nucleus body)- Neuroglia (5 types) - support neurons Specific tissue type is same name as primary tissue type 10 Nervous tissue Nervous tissue Nervous tissue Break n Look at Muscle and Nervous tissue under microscopes Quiz Information n 8 points from today n n n Cell experiment and background Epithelium, muscle and nervous tissue 2 points general connective tissue terms n Page 60 of lab manual 11 ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2011 for the course PSIO 201 taught by Professor Stanescu during the Summer '08 term at Arizona.

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