Skeletal 1 with 1 slide per page

Skeletal 1 with 1 slide per page - Skeletal System 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Skeletal System 1 Functions n n n n n Structural Framework Protection of organs and soft tissues System of levers for locomotion Storage of minerals and nutrients Blood Cell production (hemopoiesis) 2 Axial Skeleton vs. Appendicular Skeleton n n Lab manual exercise 9 Axial Skeleton: Trunk of the body n Support protect vital organs of head, neck and torso n n Appendicular Skeleton: n Makes up the limbs 3 Classification of Bones n Long n n Femur, humerus, etc… Bones of carpus n Ribs, bones of calvarium, sternum, etc… n Vertebrae, Scapula, os coxa Sesamoid n Flat n Irregular n Short n n n Patella Sutural n Cranial bones near suture 4 The Skull n Cranial bones: Cranium vs. Calvarium n Protects the brain n Contain organs for hearing (and the ear ossicles) n n Facial bones: Give shape to face n Contains teeth n Muscle attachments for facial expression n 5 Cranial Bones Lateral View n Cranial Bones n n n n n n Frontal bone Parietal bones (2) Occipital bone Temporal bones (2) Ethmoid bone Sphenoid bone 6 Sutures n n n n Coronal Sagittal Lambdoid Squamous (2) 7 Bone Markings 8 How to Name Bone Markings n Always name the bone marking followed by the bone. n Ex: n n n Zygomatic process of the temporal bone Styloid process of the temporal bone Styloid process of the ulna 9 Ethmoid bone n n n n n n Cristta galli Cribriform plate Olfactory foramina Perpendicular plate Superior nasal concha Middle nasal concha 10 Sphenoid bone 11 Cranial Bones Inferior View 12 Cranial Bones Superior View Without The Calvarium 13 Ear Ossicles n n n Malleus Incus Stapes Incus Malleus Stapes 14 Facial bones n n n n n n n n Maxilla (2) Mandible Zygomatic (2) Nasal (2) Lacrimal (2) Palatines (2) Vomer Inferior nasal conchae (2) Anterior View 15 Hard Palate n Made up of 4 bones: n n 2 Palatine bones 2 Maxilla 16 Hyoid bone n n Only bone in the body not attached to any other bone Is crushed if a person is strangled 17 Fetal Skull 18 Fontanels n n n Fibrous CT that holds together the bones of the skull Overtime will ossify to become sutures Functions: Allow growth of brain and skull n Used to help the baby through the birthing canal n 19 Fontanels n 4 Fontanels n n n n Anterior (frontal) Fontanel Anterolateral (sphenoidal) Fontanel Posterior (occipital) Fontanel Posterolateral (mastoid) Fontanel Anterior Fontanel Posterior Fontanel 20 Craniostenosis or Craniosynostosis n Occurs when one or more fontanels close prematurely n n n Result = abnormal growth of the skull and/or brain Can cause pressure buildup around the brain May cause abnormal brain development 21 Symptoms of craniostenosis n n n n Abnormal head shape Bulging eyes Misshaped nose or jaw Severe cranial pressure buildup n n n n Vomiting Developmental delay Seizures Blindness 22 Treatment n n Surgery Baby helmet 23 Activities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify cranial and facial bones from different views (lateral, inferior, anterior, and cranial floor) Identify the bone markings Look at the exploded skulls: On the plastic ones: Take out the ethmoid and sphenoid bones for better view Identify the fontanels on the fetal skull Look at the Hyoid bone, and the Ear ossicles found on the middle lab table Look at examples of bone classifications Work through palpable bone markings on required handout 24 Vertebral Column n Consists of n 3 types of vertebrae n n n n n n Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacrum Coccyx Articulates with: skull, ribs, and pelvis 25 Parts of the vertebra n n n n n n n n Body Pedicle Transverse process Lamina Spinous process Vertebral arch Vertebral foramen Superior and inferior articular processes 26 Cervical vertebrae n n n n Transverse foramina Bifurcated spinous process Small body or no body 7 cervical vertebrae include: n Atlas (C1) and Axis (C2) 27 Atlas (C1) n n n n Enlarged vertebral foramen No spinous process Articulates superiorly with the occipital condyles of the occipital bone Articulates inferiorly with Axis, C2 28 Axis (C2) n n n n Dens (a.k.a. odontoid process) Bifurcated spinous process Articulates superiorly with Atlas, C1 Inferior articulation is with C3 29 C7 n n Spinous process is not bifurcated When dislocated results in whiplash 30 Thoracic Vertebrae n n n n n n 12 Thoracic Vertebrae Sharply slanted spinous process Medium sized bodies Transverse processes have facets Bodies have demifacets Articulates with the ribs 31 Lumbar Vertebrae n n Large body Spinous process extends horizontally 32 Intervertebral foramina n n Foramina through which spinal nerves exit the vertebral column Formed only when 2 vertebrae articulate with each other 33 Intervertebral discs n Fibrocartilage connective tissue between vertebrae n n Except between C1 and C2 Slipped (herniated) disc 34 Sacrum and Coccyx 35 Thoracic Cage n n a.k.a. ribcage Consists of: n n n n Sternum Ribs Costal cartilages Thoracic vertebrae 36 Ribs n 12 pairs n n n n n First 7 pairs= true ribs Last 5 pairs= false ribs Last 2 pairs = floating ribs Articulate with thoracic vertebrae Intercostal space = space between the ribs 37 Parts of the Rib n n n n Head Neck Tubercle Body 38 Rib/Vertebrae Articulations 39 Sternum n 3 fused bones n n n Manubrium Sternum body Xiphoid process 40 Activities n n n n Identify/Differentiate between the 3 vertebrae types Put together the rib articulation (2 vertebrae and 1 rib) Fill out rib/vertebrae articulation handout Look at sacrum, coccyx, and sternum 41 Study Suggestions n n n Get Body Smart link on d2l Fill out figures in exercise 9 Identify the cranial and facial bones from different views n n Lateral, superior with & without calvarium, inferior, anterior, posterior Make a table to compare the types of vertebrae 42 ...
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