Anjali- AP Enviromental- Chapter 2

Anjali- AP Enviromental- Chapter 2 - APES Ch. 2 Notes-...

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APES Ch. 2 Notes- Science as a Way of Knowing: Critical Thinking about the Environment 2.1 Notes 1. Understanding What Science Is (and What It Isn’t) a. Scientific Proof i. Disprovability - the essence of the scientific method, a statement can be said to be scientific if someone can state a method by which it could be disproved. ii. Deductive reasoning - if a conclusion follows logically from premises, the conclusion is said to be proven. Logical reasoning + correct premises iii. Inductive reasoning - formulate generalizations based on a number of observations. iv. Probability - inductive reasoning, proven in induction means a very high degree of probability; a way of expressing our certainty (or uncertainty)- estimation of observations and predictions. v. Scientific reasoning combines induction and deduction. 2.2 Notes 2. Measurements and Uncertainty a. Measurements i. Measurement is only an approximation. ii. Numbers and statistical analysis visualizes relationships in graphs and make predictions. iii. You must know the certainty of the measurement. b. Uncertainty i. Two sources of uncertainty - real variability of nature and every measurement has some error. ii. Experimental Errors - measurement uncertainties and other errors that occur in experiments. iii. Systematic Errors - errors that occur consistently. c.
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This note was uploaded on 09/15/2011 for the course ENVIRON 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at UC Irvine.

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Anjali- AP Enviromental- Chapter 2 - APES Ch. 2 Notes-...

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