Anjali- AP Enviromental- Chapter 5 Biogeological Cycles

Anjali- AP Enviromental- Chapter 5 Biogeological Cycles -...

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CHAPTER 5- BIOGEOLOGICAL CYCLES “10% Rule” •This rule states that only 10% of energy is transferred to the next organism in a food chain. The other 90% is lost as heat. •For example, when a plant absorbs the sun’s energy, it only receives 10% of the energy produced from the sun. Energy Transfer •The amount of useful energy available to do work decreases as energy passes through an ecosystem. •For example: When a herbivore uses plant molecules to make its own molecules, only about 10% of the energy in the plant ends up in the herbivore. And when a carnivore eats a herbivore, 90% of the energy is lost in making carnivore molecules. The Pyramid of Energy •Energy Pyramid is used by many ecologists. •This pyramid is a diagram in which each trophic level is represented by a block, and the blocks are stacked on top of each other, with the lowest trophic level on the bottom. The width of the block is determinded by the amount of energy stored by the organisms at the trophic level. •Because the energy stored in the organisms at each trophic level is about 1/10 the energy stored by the organisms in the level below, the diagram takes a pyramid shape. Trophic Levels •Based of the organisms source of energy. •Path of energy through the trophic levels of an ecosystem is called a food chain. •1stlevel: Producers –plants, algae, and bacteria •2ndlevel: Herbivores(primary consumers) –Animals that eat plants •3rdLevel: Carnivores, omnivores, and Detrivores(secondary consumers) –Animals that eat other animals. •4thLevel: Carnivores that eat other carnivores. Review •Trophic Levels are broken into 4 categories. •As energy is passed from level to level, 90% of it is lost each time. Only 10% moves on to the next level. •Energy Pyramid shows how much energy is stored in each trophic level. THE CARBON CYCLE HCarbon -the element that anchors all organic substancesfrom coal and oil to DNA, the compound that carries genetic information. TIt is a biogeochemical cycle where carbon is exchanged within the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth TThe Carbon Cycle is linked with the oxygen and hydrogen cycle to form major compounds of life.
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Essential part of life on Earth. Chemical Reactions Involved HATMOSPHERE: H Carbon mainly exists as the gas carbon dioxide (CO2). Approximately 0.04% of the atmosphere. Other gases with carbon are methane and chlorofluorocarbons. These are the greenhouse gases that have been increasing. Trees convert carbon dioxideinto carbohydrates during photosynthesis,releasing oxygen. T BIOSPHERE: H Autotrophsare organisms that produce their own organic compounds using carbon dioxidefrom the air or water in which they live through photosynthesis. Some develop chemical energy sources through chemosynthesis. The most important autotrophsare trees on land and phytoplankton in oceans.
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