Anthropology 2 Final Study Guide

Anthropology 2 Final Study Guide - Anthropology 2 Final...

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Anthropology 2 Final Study Guide In “The Domestication of Wood in Haiti” Gerald Murray describes the Agroforestry Outreach project. It was successful because the peasants planted and owned the trees and were allowed to cut them down. Applied anthropology - the use of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary problems Participant-observation - develop empath, develop deep understanding, and establish rapport The emic perspective - can see from their perspective and act as cultural broker The belief that all living things have souls or spirits in addition to their physical bodies is called ANIMISM Advocacy - to raise awareness Supernatural - the extraordinary realm outside the observable world, which is non-empirical and inexplicable in ordinary terms Nyoro Ÿ Sorcery - “to injure another person by the secret use of harmful medicines Ÿ Putting a person’s body substances in an animal horn and placing it on the roof of the person’s house Ÿ Putting poison in a person’s food or drink It is not the observable evidence that makes something natural or supernatural, it is the cultural way that evidence is interpreted. Cosmology - the study of the universe and humanity’s place in it The Azande believe all of the following about witchcraft: Ÿ It is an actual physical property residing in some individuals Ÿ It is an inherited power that grows with age Ÿ It is the prime explanation for why ALL bad things happen Ÿ It works best over shot distances and with a victim the witch knows personally Myths require belief Religion has certain functions Ÿ Cognitive, emotional, social, and community functions Ÿ “Religion” comes from the Latin word religare which means “to tie, to bind” Ÿ Religion binds communities of people together Religion - a shared system of myths, beliefs, symbols, and rituals dealing with cosmology and the “supernatural” which binds communities of people together
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Animism - the belief that people (and other beings) have souls or spiritis in addition to physical bodies Animatism - the belief in a generalized, impersonal power over which people have some measure of control Cognitive - to explain the unexplainable Ÿ That answers questions of “what” and “how” Emotional - to give comfort and meaning Ÿ Religion can answer the question of “why” Social - to promote social control Ÿ Provides ethics: rules of right and wrong behavior Ÿ Positive and negative reinforcements to ensure compliance Community - to build solidarity THE AZANDE AND THE COLLAPSING GRANARY Ÿ Termites = HOW the granary collapsed Ÿ Witchcraft = WHY that granary collapsed at that time and injured those people RITUAL STAGES Ÿ Separation - a participant is removed from their normal life Ÿ Liminality - a participant has an ambiguous social position where normal rules of behavior are suspended, modified, or reversed Ÿ Reincorporation - upon successful completion of the ritual the participant is reincorporated into society often with a
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Anthropology 2 Final Study Guide - Anthropology 2 Final...

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