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Unformatted text preview: 1-1Anthropology 2 Midterm Study GuideCultural Relativism is the idea that EMIC ethnography attempts to capture what ideas and practices mean to members of a culture.Anthropology is a HOLISTICdisciplineHolism - the theory that whole entities, as fundamental components of reality, have an existence other than as the mere sum of their partsThe four fields of anthropology are:ŸPhysical or Biological Anthropology (paleoanthropology/human paleontogology)ŸArchaeology (artifacts, features, ecofacts)ŸLinguisticsŸCultural AnthropologyEnculturationis the process through which children learn their native cultureEmicapproach attempts to capture what ideas and practice mean to members of a cultureEtic approach is a systematic attempt to describe and analyze culture from an outsider perspectiveEthnologyis the comparative study of cultural differences and similaritiesAltricial: offspring are born essentially helpless and mature slowlyAcculturationis the process through which people can learn a different culture from their ownNaïve Realism is the belief that all people define the real world in the same wayOntogolgy is the study of what actually existsEpistemology is the study of the nature and scope of knowledgeEthnocentrism is the tendency to view one’s own culture as superior and to apply one’s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people from other cultures.Cultural Relativism is the idea that cultures are best understood when viewed within the cultural context of which they are a part.Franz BoasŸFocused on understanding cultures with regard to their context and historyŸValued fieldwork as the method of data collectionŸGiven credit as the first anthropologist to practice cultural relativismŸHistorical Particularism: each society is a collective representation of its unique historical pastŸThe first anthropologist to practice cultural relativismŸConsidered the “father of anthropology”Research seeking grand explanatory theories without any participation in fieldwork is best known as ARMCHAIR anthropologyEdward TylorŸThe first “Anthropologist”ŸArmchair AnthropologyLewis Henry MorganŸOut of the armchair and onto the verandahŸUnilineal social evolution: all societies pass through the same stages of evolution as they progressFunctionalism is the theory that all cultural practices and institutions serve a function2According to the American Anthropolgical Association code of ethics, our primary ethical obligation is to the people being studied....
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2011 for the course ANTHROPOLO 2 taught by Professor Walsh during the Spring '09 term at UCSB.
- Spring '09