Classics 150

Classics 150 - Lapchak 1 Classics 150 Lecture Notes Tuesday...

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Lapchak 1 Classics 150 : Lecture Notes Tuesday March 29 Fall of Ancient Republic Ÿ “Republic” - Latin - res publica = “commonwealth” Ÿ Does NOT equal “democracy” - Greek - democratia Ÿ Roman “Republic” ca. 509 BC (excersion of the last of the 7 kings of Rome) Ÿ Roman “Empire or “Principate” 31 BC Ÿ Empire - imperium Ÿ Principate - princeps - first, or leader Republic to Empire Ÿ Julius Caesar, death 44 BC Ÿ Augustus, first Emperor, reigned 28 BC (?) - 14 AD Empire : Grandeur Spectacle Gladiator - Republic origin, thrived in empirical times (Collesium built during empirical period) Decadence *T. Couture, The Romans of the Decadence Caligula Tyranny - Peter Ustinov as Nero (1951) Republic to Empire = Civic Virtue to Imperial Decadence The Republic : Civic Virtue Ÿ Lucius Brutus Civic Virture Ÿ Mucius Scaevola Ÿ Cincinnatus - George Washington, an American version of Cincinnatus - in sculpture, leaning of a fasques (Roman symbol for ______ ), a plow also located at the bottom of the statue Marcus Brutus Ÿ Resistance to tyranny Ÿ Killer of Caesar
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Lapchak 2 Ÿ The Ides of March Ÿ “Phrygian cap” The Roman Republic and U.S. Constitution Ÿ Compare Polybius on the Roman Republic - separation of powers - checks and balances The Federalists : “Publius” Ÿ Federalist Paper #10 Thursday March 31 Tuesday April 5 The Roman Constitution (end); Tiberius Gracchus: 133 BC Ÿ Nobles, blue-blood aristocrats Polybius on the Constitution of the Republic IV Ÿ The People - “direct democracy”? Popular sovereignty? - Popular assemblies: all legislation and elections (similar to electoral college) - “Centuriate” assembly: election of high magistrates - 193 “centuries,” organized by wealth-classes - “Tribal” assembly: election of lower magistrates and tribunes; legislation - 35 “tribes,” organized regionally - 4 urban, 31 rural - the wealthy more easily able to travel to Rome (where all voting took place) because they could take weeks off from their daily lives, unlike those impoverished who lived day by day - 10 Tribunes of the People ( plebs ) - To protect the common people of Rome from magisterial authority - “Sacrosanctity” and veto ( inercessio ) - Made inviolate (untouchable, protected from all interference of violent nature that would cause interference of pursuing his political duties. Anyone who interferes would be sacrificed to the goddess Sires. - Latin word of intercede (to step between), was the word used instead of our word veto - Right to propose legislation and summon the senate - They themselves are Senators, or Senatorial family - Polybius: “rewards and punishments,” example, elections and judging major crimes - election to political office was somewhat of an award - a vote of confidence in someone’s merit, not necessarily to put in place a local program Ÿ “Checks and Balances” - Each element is checked and balanced so that one element does not become over powering among the others. In order to get anything done, the elements must collaborate and as Polybius states, the
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Classics 150 - Lapchak 1 Classics 150 Lecture Notes Tuesday...

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