Chapter-05

Chapter-05 - Chapter 5 Input/Output 5.1 Principles of I/O...

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1 Input/Output Chapter 5 5.1 Principles of I/O hardware 5.2 Principles of I/O software 5.3 I/O software layers 5.4 Disks 5.5 Clocks 5.6 Character-oriented terminals 5.7 Graphical user interfaces 5.8 Network terminals 5.9 Power management
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2 Agenda 5.1 Principles of I/O hardware 5.2 Principles of I/O software 5.3 I/O software layers 5.4 Disks 5.5 Clocks 5.6 Character-oriented terminals 5.7 Graphical user interfaces 5.8 Network terminals 5.9 Power management
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3 Principles of I/O Hardware Electrical Engineers Chips, wires, power supplies, motors, and other physical components that make up the hardware of I/O devices. Programmers The interface presented to the software. The commands that the hardware accepts, the functions it carries out, and the errors that can be reported back.
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4 I/O Devices Some typical device, network, and data base rates I/O Devices Block devices Stores information in fixed-size block, each one with its own address. Character devices Delivers or accepts a stream of characters, without regard to any block structure.
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5 Device Controllers I/O devices have components: mechanical component electronic component The electronic component is the device controller may be able to handle multiple devices Controller's tasks convert serial bit stream to block of bytes perform error correction as necessary make available to main memory
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6 Memory-Mapped I/O (1) Separate I/O and memory space Memory-mapped I/O Hybrid
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7 Memory-Mapped I/O (2) Caching with Memory-Mapped I/O With (a), hardware should selectively disable caching for I/O pages With (b), First check memory, then I/O: requires additional hardware complexity Snooping device on the memory bus: I/O devices are much slower Filtering addresses in PCI Bridge (e.g., Pentium): preload registers at boot time (a) A single-bus architecture (b) (b) A dual-bus memory architecture
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8 Direct Memory Access (DMA) Operation of a DMA transfer
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9 Interrupts Revisited How interrupts happens. Connections between devices and interrupt controller actually use interrupt lines on the bus rather than dedicated wires
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10 Agenda 5.1 Principles of I/O hardware 5.2 Principles of I/O software 5.3 I/O software layers 5.4 Disks 5.5 Clocks 5.6 Character-oriented terminals 5.7 Graphical user interfaces 5.8 Network terminals 5.9 Power management
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Goals of I/O Software (1) Device independence programs can access any I/O device without specifying device in advance (e.g., floppy, hard drive, or CD-ROM) Uniform naming name of a file or device should simply be a string or an integer and not depend on the device in any way. Error handling
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Chapter-05 - Chapter 5 Input/Output 5.1 Principles of I/O...

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