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HC-Lecture17-Reinforced-Concrete

HC-Lecture17-Reinforced-Concrete - Heavy Construction Heavy...

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Heavy Construction Heavy Construction Lecture #17 Lecture #17 Reinforced Concrete L Prieto-Portar 2008
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Hoover Dam An example of cyclopic concrete
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Concrete History. - 1824, Aspdin patented Portland Cement, named after the Portland limestone; - 1850s, reinforced concrete invented; - 1920s, pre-stressed concrete invented. Selecting a Building’s Structure: 1) Who are involved? - the Owner or, the Developer, - the Architect, - the Structural Engineer (the most important!), - the MEP Engineer, and the - the Contractor. 2) Major factors involved: a) Cost b) Typical bay sizes c) Expected lateral loads from wind and seismic d) Desired design flexibility e) Story heights (different for office versus residential, etc) f) Durability g) Aesthetics and exterior details.
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Concrete Concrete is an imitation of nature’s sedimentary rocks: conglomerates and breccias. Portland cement is made from finely ground and baked limestones and dolomites. When water is added, the paste becomes a rock-like material. Its ingredients are, 1) Portland cement; 2) Course aggregate: usually occupies about 75% of the entire volume, and is the most important factor in the structural strength of the concrete. It must be clean, chemically stable and properly graded though sieves so that the different size particles interlock together. Their maximum size must fit between reinforcing bars, and so they are selected to be < than ¾ of the distance between bars. 3) Fine aggregate, mostly sand and silica fume. 4) Water, clean and essentially potable. 5) Admixtures (optional) for workability, etc.
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Properties of Concrete. Concrete is very versatile (will form to any shape), pliable when mixed, strong, durable, will not rust (such as steel) or rot (such as wood), does not need to be coated and resists fire. Concrete is made from Portland Cement, which is a generic term for a manufactured stone that is a fine gray powder. When water is added, a chemical reaction takes place, and the cement acts like a “glue” or binder, that ties the mass of coarse and fine aggregates together. The chemical reaction is called “curing”, and is essentially a hydration. The different types of cement are: Type I - Normal (used for most applications); Type II and V - Moderate and high sulfate resistance, for corrosive environments; Type III - High early strength; Type IV - Low heat of hydration; Type 1A, IIA, IIIA - Air entrained cements. Cement uses are, Site-cast concrete, most commonly seen as building sites; Concrete block units (CMU), used for walls; Pre-cast concrete products, built in specialty manufacturing plants, and Mortars, used for masonry, water-proofing finishes, etc.
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Type I - Normal
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Type I - Normal
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Type III - High Early Strength
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Type IV - Low Heat of Hydration
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Aggregates. Aggregates constitute about 75% of the volume of concrete. They are selected because they are strong, resistant the freeze-thaw cycle and are chemically stable.
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