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Lecture+7+Cosmopolitanism+I - Lecture7:ImmanuelKant,PartI...

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Lecture 7: Immanuel Kant, Part I INTA 2030: Ethics and International Affairs 2/21/2011
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A Cosmopolitan Universal History Does history reveal a steady progress and slow  development of the original capacities of  humankind? We can’t assume that there is a natural end to human  affairs But we can look to history to learn whether there is a  natural objective in the course of human affairs Perhaps, as we have in physics, we can find laws and  universal natural cause in the great human drama
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Nine Theses on History 1. A creatures’ natural capacities are destined to  develop to their completion, and in conformity with  their end – there is a teleology to nature 2. The natural capacities of humankind towards the  use of reason develop in the whole species and not  in individuals 3. Only humans can produce beyond the mechanical  organization of natural existence.  a) Humans can achieve happiness and perfection only  through reason independent of instinct.  b) Reason is our endowment from nature, who provides  endowments with the greatest frugality
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Why does Kant describe nature’s endowments as  given with “the greatest frugality?” A: Because each creature has very few endowments B: Because monkeys don’t have fins, and fish don’t  have fur C: Because nature is cheap D: Because all creatures are expected to make for  themselves what they’re not given
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Nine Theses on History 1. Antagonism is the means by which human  capacities can be developed, as long as it causes  law-governed order in society a)
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