Chapter2 - Chapter 2 Atomic Scale Structures Introduction...

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Chapter 2 Atomic Scale Structures Introduction Atomic Structure Thermodynamics and Kinetics Primary Bonds Bond-Energy Curve Atomic Packing and Coordination Secondary Bonds Mixed Bonds Structure of Polymer Materials
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Introductory Remarks for Chapter 2- Atomic Scale Structures Why do certain materials have particular sets of properties? Why are metals good electrical conductors while plastics and ceramics are good insulators? Why are some materials stiff, and what controls the stiffness? Why do some materials expand with temperature while others do not?
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Introductory Remarks for Chapter 2- Atomic Scale Structures Although properties depend on all levels of structure, many are determined by the atomic scale. The types of atoms present. The types of bonds in the material. The way the atoms are packed. In Chapter 2 we review Structure of the atom Basic concepts from thermodynamics and kinetics Types of bonds
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Zn- Atomic number 30 Bohr Model for a Zinc Atom Electrons 1s 2 2s 2 3s 2 4s 2 2p 6 3p 6 3d 10 Nucleus Number of electrons = 2(2l + 1), where l = 0, s (2) l = 1, p (6) l = 2, d (10) l = 3, f (14)
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Atomic Structure Energy Principal quantum number, n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 s p s p s p s p s p s p s d d d d d f f f Schematic representation of the relative energies of the electrons for the various shells and subshells.
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Atomic Structure 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 6f 7s 7p 7d 7f 8s 8p 8d 8f Order of filling: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, . ..
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Schematic representation of the filled energy states for an isolated sodium atom Atomic number of sodium is 11 Increasing Energy 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p
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Energy-level diagram for the orbital electrons in a 12 C atom. Energy, eV 1s 2(sp 3 ) 0 -6.5 -283.9
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Electronic Structure Compare the electronic structures of Silicon and Germanium with Carbon Atomic number of Carbon- 6 Atomic number of Silicon- 14 Atomic number of Germanium- 32 These electronic configurations lead to similar crystal structure for the three elements
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Electronic Structure Carbon, 6 electrons- 1s , 1s , 2s , 2p Silicon, 14 electrons- 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p Germanium, 32 electrons- 1s , 2s , 2p , 3s , 3p , 4s , 3d , 4p Order of filling: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, . ..
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Electronic Structure d orbitals shown with correct electron arrangement d orbitals shown with incorrect electron arrangement
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Brief Review of Thermodynamics First Law Second Law Combined First and Second Laws dE q w δ = - q dS T = dE TdS PdV = - ( , ) E E S V =
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Brief Review of Thermodynamics Development of Auxiliary Functions- Alternate statements of the combined First and Second Laws H(S,P)- Enthalpy A(T,V)- Helmholtz Free Energy G(T,P)- Gibbs Free Energy dG = -SdT + VdP
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Brief Review of Thermodynamics Properties of the Gibbs function At equilibrium, the Gibbs free energy of the phases are all equal
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Chapter2 - Chapter 2 Atomic Scale Structures Introduction...

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