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Unformatted text preview: ANSWERS TO “B” EXERCISES Exercise 1.10 2. Same premise and conclusion. 4. Not an argument at all (just an “if” statement). 6. Probably this is meant to have the same premise and conclusion; but it is not proper English, since you can’t start out with “therefore.” 8. Same premise and conclusion. 10. Same premise and conclusion. 12. Not an argument at all (just an “if” statement). 14. This reverses the premise and conclusion. Exercise 1.11 2. Argument. That Negroes are going to gain their freedom in America was an uncertain statement about the future. 4. Explanation. At the time it was already a well-known fact about the past that Kucinich’s campaign failed. 6. Explanation. Rose takes it to be well-known that he bet on his team. 8. I’m not sure about this one. It could be an argument, where Mr. Friedman is trying to convince us that Saddam Hussein is deterrable through conventional means, and giving us the evidence for that controversial assertion. Or it might be an explanation, where Mr. Friedman is assuming that Saddam Hussein is deterrable through conventional means, and telling us what it was about Sad- dam Hussein that has led to that. 10. Explanation. Here it is taken as non-controversial that Bob never studied. 12. Explanation. “President Kennedy was killed” is a well-known fact about the past. 14. Explanation. “The dinosaurs all died” is a well-known fact. 16. Explanation. Here it’s assumed as true that she will be waiting up. 18. Argument. We are given evidence for the (presumably) controversial assertion that Allen’s crimes are the most dangerous sort. 20. Argument. That the death penalty “should be abolished” is a controversial assertion about ethics or politics, and we are given evidence (“it is generally given to minorities”) to convince us that it is true. 22. Explanation. That the Panthers lost is a well-known fact about the past (at least given my note on the score). 24. Explanation. “There’s a traffic jam” is, in this situation (you are sitting on 101), a well-known fact. 26. Explanation. Here “we choose to explore space” is assumed to be true. 28. Argument. Here we have an attempted justification of the existence of God (a controversial asser- tion) by reference to the alleged fact that there is a creator. 30. Explanation. Gingrich takes it as well-known that everyone wants to learn English. 32. Neither. This is just another of Mr. Spock’s profound insights. 1 34. Neither. This is an “unless” statement. 36. Explanation. It’s clear that Mr. Schwarzenegger ran into the car. 38. Explanation. It seems to be taken as true that Belinda took advantage of him. 40. Neither; here “since” is a temporal conjunction....
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2011 for the course PHIL 110 taught by Professor Kay during the Spring '07 term at S.F. State.
- Spring '07